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- Volume 27, Issue 3, 2015
South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Volume 27, Issue 3, 2015
Volumes & issues
Volume 27, Issue 3, 2015
Author Mike LambertSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8769More Less
Clinical medicine has been over diagnosing for several years; sport and exercise medicine needs to guard against falling into the same trap. This was the message portrayed in a podcast in which Dr Karim Khan, editor of the British Journal of Sports Medicine, interviewed Ray Moynihan, one of the authors of the bestselling book Selling Sickness : How the World's Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies are Turning Us All Into Patients. The concept of 'selling sickness' is becoming a major public health problem, with many patients being treated for diseases or injuries that do not require treatment. Often the treatment has more undesirable effects than no treatment at all. The driving force for over diagnosing can have different origins.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 63 –66 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8078More Less
There are many questions about youth rugby for which there are no immediate answers. At what age should the young players specialise? How often should they practise? How many matches should they play in season? Science has lagged behind in providing clear answers, and in many cases decisions about the development of the game at this level have to be made based on logic and intuition. As a result, opinions may differ and controversy may prevail. Recently a panel of experts representing different aspects of youth rugby was asked a series of questions about this sport, the aim being to examine the answers given from different perspectives. The overall goal was to identify where agreement does or does not exist.To make this exercise worthwhile, it was important to have respected panellists with expertise in different areas. The following panellists were invited to participate : Justin Durandt, Manager of the Discovery High Performance Centre, Sports Science Institute of South Africa (SA), currently studying towards his PhD on talent identification in youth rugby players; Dr Sharief Hendricks, a postdoctoral fellow internationally renowned for his research on the tackle in rugby; Dr Mike Marshall, a medical doctor with expertise in rugby medicine and youth rugby; Andries Roux, a rugby coach and teacher working with primary school children; and Dr Eugene Hare, an expert in youth rugby and physical development, and current CEO of the Blue Bulls Rugby Union in SA. The questions posed to each panellist and their individual responses follow.
Initial investigation of nutrition and supplement use, knowledge and attitudes of under-16 rugby players in South Africa : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 67 –17 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8092More Less
Background. Internationally young athletes are reported to have a poor understanding of the principles of sports nutrition and supplement use; hence their diet may be unhealthy and inappropriate for participation in sport. There is limited research on current nutritional knowledge and attitudes of under-16 (U16) age-group level rugby players in South Africa (SA).
Objectives. To assess dietary- and supplement-related knowledge and attitudes of 198 U16 national-level rugby players in SA.
Methods. Over a period of four consecutive years a total of 198 players attending nutrition workshops at the annual selection camp received and completed an anonymous structured questionnaire. Anthropometric measures (weight, height and skinfolds) were gathered by registered biokineticists.
Results. Of players 87% (168/193) indicated that they wanted to increase lean muscle mass, with 42% (82/194) feeling pressurised to do so by their coach and/or parents. Almost half (85/196) believed their diets to be poor. Players had better knowledge about nutrition recovery strategies than pre-game meals. Seventy per cent (136/195) identified optimal timing and 56% (109/196) knew the ideal macronutrient composition of recovery meals. Over 60% of players believed supplements were safe (115/192) and necessary (132/193) for increasing muscle mass, and almost half (106/195) believed they could take creatine. Over a third (68/170) also believed that the protein quality of supplements was higher than that of food. Supplements were primarily recommended by coaches and non-dietetic medical practitioners. Eight of the players self-prescribed supplements and four were taking supplements on the advice of a store salesperson or representative.
Conclusion. The elite U16 rugby players in this study lacked comprehensive sports nutritional knowledge, yet had an overly positive attitude toward supplementation and used supplements haphazardly to achieve body composition goals. Tailor-made nutrition interventions with a strong education component are recommended to improve players' nutritional knowledge, as well as access to registered dietitians working in sport to advise on supplements.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 72 –75 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8091More Less
Background. The tackle is an important component of rugby union. The tackle situation carries the highest risk for injury for both the ball carrier and tackler. Little is known about the epidemiology of tackle injuries in koshuis rugby players.
Objectives. To (i) calculate the tackle-related injury rate, (ii) determine if the tackler or ball carrier is more susceptible to injury, and (iii) determine the most common location and type of injury during tackles.
Methods. Data were collected by means of injury report forms from the medical centre during koshuis matches of 2012 and 2013. All data collected were captured into an online database. Only data related to tackle injuries were evaluated for this retrospective, descriptive epidemiological study.
Results. The tackle led to 61% of all injuries (11.4 injuries/1 000 playing hours). The tackler sustained 23% more injuries than the ball carrier.Injuries to the face (3.1 injuries/1 000 playing hours, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8 - 3.3) were most prevalent. The most common type of injury was lacerations (3.4 injuries/1 000 playing hours, 95% CI 3.2 - 3.7).
Conclusion. The tackle contributed to 61% of all injuries, making it the most dangerous phase of play. The tackler is more at risk than the ball carrier, especially for injuries to the face, with lacerations having the highest prevalence. For the ball carrier the location of the most injuries was the head, although joint sprains were the most common type of injury for the ball carrier.
Cricket pace bowling : the trade-off between optimising knee angle for performance advantages v. injury prevention : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 76 –81 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8111More Less
Background. The cricket pace bowler utilises various strategies, including a more extended front knee angle, to achieve optimal performance benefits. At times this is done to the detriment of injury prevention.
Objective. To investigate the relationship between three-dimensional (3D) knee kinematics during pace bowling action, injury incidence and bowling performance at the start and end of a cricket season.
Methods. Knee angle and ball release (BR) speed of injury-free premier league (club level) cricket pace bowlers over the age of 18 years were measured at the start and end of the cricket season. Kinematic, injury- and bowling performance-related (BR speed and accuracy) data were analysed using paired and independent Student's t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Ï?2 test and a two-way analysis of covariance with repeated measures.
Results. Thirty-one bowlers participated in this study, and kinematic data of a subset of 17 were analysed. Nine bowlers (53%) sustained injuries during the cricket season. No statistically significant relationship was found between knee angle and injury. Bowlers who did notsustain an injury bowled with more knee flexion at the start of the season (mean (standard deviation) 157.07° (12.02°)) than at the end of it (163.95° (6.97°)) (p=0.01). There was no interaction between accuracy and knee angle. There was a good to excellent inverse correlation between BR speed and knee angle among bowlers who remained injury free (r=-0.79; p=0.18).
Conclusion. Bowlers who remain injury free during the course of the season may use strategies other than the front knee angle to facilitate high BR speeds. Technique-related variables which are more 'protective' against injuries while allowing for higher BR speeds should be further investigated among bowlers.
Source: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 82 –86 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8112More Less
Background. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is an ever-increasing burden on the health sector. With reported incidences of greater than 50%, coupled with the fact that recreational activities at high altitude are gaining increasing popularity, more persons are developing AMS. Physicians are therefore increasingly faced with the task of managing and preventing AMS.
Objectives. The pathophysiology of AMS is poorly understood, with little understanding of risk factors for the development of AMS. This research aimed to identify epidemiological and physiological risk factors for development of AMS.
Methods. This study is a questionnaire-based study conducted in London and at Everest Base Camp, in which 116 lowlanders were invited to participate and fill in a questionnaire to identify potential risk factors in their history that may have contributed to development of or protection against AMS.
Results. A total of 89 lowlanders enrolled in the study. Thirty-seven of the participants had AMS at Everest Base Camp, giving a prevalence of 42%. Of the demographic variables, only weight and body mass index (BMI) were statistically significantly associated with AMS, with those who weighed less or had a lower BMI more likely to get AMS. Previous high-altitude experience was also associated with AMS, with those who had such experience less likely to get AMS.
Conclusion. Predicting AMS and furthering our understanding of the pathophysiology of AMS will be of tremendous benefit. Further research is needed in this regard.
Role of parents as a protective factor against adolescent athletes' doping susceptibility : original researchSource: South African Journal of Sports Medicine 27, pp 87 –91 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://doi:10.7196/SAJSM.8094More Less
Background. Although literature on sports psychology outlines parental influence in various areas, research has not focused on its potential in the framework of doping.
Objective. To assess whether parents' knowledge about doping effects, and their behaviour and beliefs might act as a protecting factor for Austrian junior (14 - 18 years) elite athletes' doping susceptibility (DS).
Methods. Questionnaires were distributed to 1 818 student athletes and their parents. As well as collecting socio-demographic data, information about current sports activity levels and the former sports careers of parents, the following categories were included : (i) knowledge about effects of doping; (ii) parental behaviour; (iii) parental beliefs about athletes' skills to become a professional athlete; and (iv) DS.
Results. In total 527 data sets were entered for analysis. Current state of knowledge was significantly different between mothers (0.72 (0.2)) and fathers (0.76 (0.2)) (p=0.003). Next to situational variables, only fathers' behaviour, which was moderated by fathers' beliefs, was a significant predictor of athletes' DS.
Conclusion. Fathers have the potential of acting as a protective factor for DS in athletes, but only if their level of belief is moderate. Doping prevention strategies should include parents, but need to be careful on the role they are planning to fulfil, with an emphasis on soft skills (e.g. communication). Future research might include variables from sports psychology such as motivational climate, goal orientation and belief in success as possible mediators of the influence of parents on their adolescent children in the sport setting.