The challenge to understand the somewhat nebulous concept of pain has been around since Aristotle classified it as the ""passion of the soul"", and most athletes will have experienced pain to a lesser or greater degree at sometime in their career. Although there is a clear physiological component as the body responds to some noxious stimuli, as soon as the pain sensation is ï¿½felt' it becomes a personalised experience affected by a multitude of psychosocial factors. The interaction between physiological and psychological factors results in pain being a complex multi-dimensional phenomenon which is not easily understood.
Personality subtypes and mood states were investigated in addicted and non-addicted runners (n = 49), and contrasted with a control group of non-exercisers (n = 34). Runners were assigned to a non-addicted and addicted group on the basis of Hailey and Baileyï¿½s Negative Addiction Scale, and all study participants were then asked to complete a biographical questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI).
This case study descriptionbes the psychological preparation and intervention in a low intensity marathon event. A successful attempt was made on a world squash playing marathon record, and although the players were assisted by other professionals, it was decided to report the contribution of the psychological intervention. A holistic approach based on the individual needs of the players was designed, and the particular use and application of relaxation, imagery and re-interpretation of stimuli and responses is descriptionbed.
In order to simulate overground walking and running, the motordriven treadmill is only used in physiological, kinematic and psychophysical studies of human emotion. Primarily because of the convenience and control that it offers, the treadmill has played an important role in the development of sports science and allied disciplines. However, the results of studies utilising the treadmill can only he extrapolated to overground situations if there are no demonstrable, significant differences between the two modes of locomotion. This paper serves to examine the literature in order to clarify the issues involved for researchers.