Exercise has been widely recommended as a means of preventing osteoporosis. The rationale for this recommendation was based largely on the inference that immobilisation and weightlessness lead to bone loss and therefore exercise should lead to bone gain. Since peak bone mass is a major determinant of bone mass and fracture risk later in life, any factors that could enhance peak bone mass can be considered to be beneficial in preventing osteoporosis in the long-term. Exercise is a lifestyle factor that can be modified and if it does indeed increase peak bone mass, it may offer protection against bone fragility in old age.
Reduced host resistance to infection following participation in an ultramarathon event, has been attributed to damage to the local mucosal membranes of the upper respiratory tract (URT). Physical properties of the mucous membranes have been reported to change and to result in impaired lymphocyte, neutrophil and macrophage function.
An experiment was conducted to compare the ability to absorb impact forces and rebound characteristics of an ï¿½experimentalï¿½ pair of pads with three pairs of cricket batting pads currently in use. Design: The forces absorption and rebound characteristics of the ï¿½experimentalï¿½ pair of pads was compared with three pairs of cricket batting pads currently in use, at four impact velocities.
Paralysis due to injury of the cervical spinal cord in rugby players, is a subject of great concern. Since the publication of previous reports on these injuries, considerable attention has been paid to amending the rules governing rugby and improving the standard of refereeing. In an attempt to assess whether these measures have reduced the incidence of injury or altered the type of injury sustained, an analysis of injured rugby players admitted to the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at Conradie Hospital during the period 1981 to 1987 has been made. Results of this study indicate that there has been no decrease in the incidence of these serious injuries. The scrum and tackle remain the most important cause of injury. Foul play, in particular the high tackle remains an important and avoidable cause of injury.
To investigate whether recently developed infrared auditory canal thermometers, which offer numerous advantages over conventional oral glassmercury thermometers, provide measurements equivalent to those of the oral glass-mercury thermometers before and after exercise.
The incidence of sport injuries was examined. The type of injury sustained in various sport events was examined. Special attention was given to rugby and athletic injuries. The study was done to determine the need for sport medicine education in South Africa.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the response of urinary excretion of catecholamines after a bout of outdoor sport rockclimbing. Design, setting & subjects: This study was undertaken outdoors in the Blue Mountains in NSW, Australia. Seven elite rockclimbers were recruited for the study. Each had previous experience with the climb route. The subjects were required to climb the route as fast as possible. Heart rate (HR) and urinary excretion of catecholamines epinephrine, EPI; norepinephrine, (NE) were measured pre-climb, immediately post-climb and 30 min post-climb.
Adequate physical examination of any part of the musculoskeletal system should be preceded, whenever possible, by comprehensive history and general examination. One must bear in mind that pain is often caused by compensatory stresses in response to malalignement. It is therefore essential, when assessing an ankle or foot problem, to exclude the possibility of pathology in the spine, hip or knee.