oa South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Physical examination of the ankle and foot
|Article Title||Physical examination of the ankle and foot|
|© Publisher:||Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG)|
|Journal||South African Journal of Sports Medicine|
|Affiliations||1 Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Natal Medical School, Congella, Natal|
|Publication Date||Oct 1998|
|Pages||20 - 24|
|Keyword(s)||Bruising, Bursa, Calcaneofibular ligaments, Congenital anomalies, Crepitus, Ecchymoses, Erythema, Foot pronation, Fracture dislocations, Hallux rigidus, Iselin's disease, Lateral ligamentous structures of ankle, Mucoid degeneration, Nerve entrapment syndromes, Neuromas, Osteochondroses, Palpation, Paraesthesiae on plantar of foot, Passive movements, Plantar flexion, Severe bony tenderness and Tendo-Achilles mechanism|
Adequate physical examination of any part of the musculoskeletal system should be preceded, whenever possible, by comprehensive history and general examination. One must bear in mind that pain is often caused by compensatory stresses in response to malalignement. It is therefore essential, when assessing an ankle or foot problem, to exclude the possibility of pathology in the spine, hip or knee.
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