Background. Delivery of integrated care for patients with HIV-associated TB is challenging. We assessed the uptake and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among eligible patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics.
Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all HIV-associated TB patients (≥18 years old) who commenced TB treatment in 2010 were included. Data were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and log-binomial regression analysis.
Results. Of a total of 497 patients diagnosed with HIV-associated TB, 274 were eligible to start ART for the first time (median CD4 count, 159 cells/µl). ART was started during TB treatment by 220 (80.3%) patients. Among the 54 (19.7%) who did not start ART, 23 (42.6%) were either lost to follow-up (LTFU) or died before enrolling for ART; 12 (22.2%) were either LTFU or died after enrolling but before starting ART; 5 (9.3%) were transferred out; and 14 (25.9%) only started ART after completion of TB treatment. The median delay between starting TB treatment and starting ART was 51 days (IQR 29 - 77). Overall, only 58.6% of patients started ART within 8 weeks of TB treatment, and 12.7% of those with CD4 counts <50 cells/µl started ART within 2 weeks.
Conclusions. In a setting with co-located TB and ART clinics, delays to starting ART were substantial, and one-fifth of eligible patients did not start ART during TB treatment. Co-location of services alone is insufficient to permit timely initiation of ART; further measures need to be implemented to facilitate integrated treatment.
Objective. There has been a recent increase in interest in antenatal depression, which is associated with adverse obstetric, neonatal and maternal outcomes and has been overlooked and underdiagnosed. Local data on prevalence and risk factors are lacking.
Aim. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with antenatal depressive symptoms in a KwaZulu-Natal population.
Methods. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire in English and isiZulu were administered to 387 antenatal outpatients at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban.
Results. Of the participants, 149 (38.5%) suffered from depression and 38.3% had thought of harming themselves in the preceding 7 days. Risk factors for depression included HIV seropositivity (p=0.02), a prior history of depression (p=0.02), recent thoughts of self-harm (p<0.000), single marital status (p=0.04) and unplanned pregnancy (p=0.01).
Conclusion. The high prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms and thoughts of deliberate self-harm supports a policy of routine screening for antenatal depression in South Africa, especially in HIV-seropositive women.