n South African Medical Journal - Isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected and -uninfected children (0 - 14 years) : forum - clinical practice

Volume 103, Issue 10
  • ISSN : 0256-9574
  • E-ISSN: 2078-5135



Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in immunocompetent children <5 years of age after exposure to an infectious TB source case. Routine IPT has been advocated in all HIV-infected children without TB, but has been controversial. Antiretroviral therapy markedly reduces the risk for TB in HIV-infected children, especially when started early in infancy. In HIV-infected children, as in HIV-uninfected children, we recommend post-exposure IPT after each TB exposure episode; but in HIV-infected children, this should be given irrespective of age or antiretroviral therapy. However, evidence for routine IPT without known exposure to TB in HIV-infected children is not convincing and is therefore not recommended.

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