n South African Medical Journal - Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from patients with bloodstream infections at a tertiary care hospital in the Democratic Republic of the Congo : research




Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a life-threatening condition that requires rapid antimicrobial treatment.

We determined the prevalence of bacterial isolates associated with BSI at Bukavu General Hospital (BGH), South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, from February 2013 to January 2014.
We cultured 112 clinically relevant isolates from 320 blood cultures. Of these isolates, 104 (92.9%) were Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), with 103 bacilli (92.0%) and one coccus (0.9%). Among GNB, (51.9%), spp. (20.2%), spp. (6.7%), spp. (5.8%) and spp. (4.8%) were the most frequent agents causing BSIs. Other GNB isolates included spp., spp. and (both 2.9%), and spp. and spp. (both 0.9%). High rates of resistance to co-trimoxazole (100%), erythromycin (100%) and ampicillin (66.7 - 100%) and moderate to high resistance to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and cefepime were observed among GNB. Furthermore, there were high rates of multidrug resistance and of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production phenotype among Gram-positive bacteria includedthree isolates (2.7%), four oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates (3.6%) and one Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.9%). No oxacillin-resistant S. was isolated. Among clinically relevant staphylococci, susceptibility to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin was low (0 - 25%). In addition, 58 contaminant CoNS were isolated from blood cultures, and the calculated ratio of contaminants to pathogens in blood cultures was 1 : 2.
Multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing GNB are the leading cause of BSI at BGH.


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