oa South African Medical Journal - Bilharzia disease : some prevalent misconceptions
Bilharzia may cause no symptoms till long after it has been acquired, and even then no symptoms directly referable to the urinary tract. In most cases of chronic Bilharzia the urine is characterised by its normality, microscopically and macrocopically. Ova are so seldom seen that their absence has no diagnostic significance. The only reliable method of diagnosing the disease is by the direct inspection of the bladder mucosa with the cystoscope
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