The factors determining the radiation climate in South Africa and Europe can be summarized as follows: - 1. The angle of incidence of the solar rays during a large part of the day is greater in South Africa than in Europe. This results in a steeper incidence of the rays on a horizontal surface and also on sunbathers lying flat on the ground. 2. Length of the days. In South Africa the days are, on an average, two hours shorter in summer and two hours longer in winter. Consequently the hours with comparatively great intensities are, on clear days, in summer less numerous in South Africa than in Europe. The reverse is the case during winter. 3. The cloudiness is relatively small in South Africa and hours with bright sunshine much more numerous than in Europe. 4. The total amount of solar radiation obtained is greater, particularly during winter, in South Africa than in Europe. The greater number of hours with bright sunshine is the predominant cause of this, although the altitude of the sun also plays a role. 5. The intensity of the direct solar radiation at noon on clear days is practically equal at Davos and Johannesburg, bu t lower at Kew than at Durban. The altitude of the sun is, however, responsible for a difference in the effect on the human body during exposure in a lying position. 6. During a sunbath of 10 minutes' duration in summer, an adult person would be exposed to comparatively great intensities in Europe as well as in South Africa. In winter, however, the irradiation in Europe would be much less.
Infection of the urinary tract is recognised best by the presence of pus cells in the urine. In acid and neutral urines the pus cells survive in good condition for at least two days and probably much longer. In alkaline urine the pus cells disintegrate with much more rapidity, but generally survive for 24 hours, approximately. Here the urine should either be examined immediately or otherwise preserved in a refrigerator. In some types of highly alkaline urine associated with slimy mucus, even immediate examination microscopically may reveal pus cells already in an extreme state of disintegration, recognised duly with difficulty.
Reference is made to Middle East experimental field work on D.D.T., the new insecticide. This stable substance is soluble in several diluents suitable or field work such as mineral oils. It is non-toxic under field conditions to users. Dusted on the clothing of lousy persons by hand- and power operated guns, it is most effective. In a vehicle of kerosene it is a remarkable mosquito larvicide. Against adult mosquitoes, flies, fleas and bugs, it is most effectively used as a residual film on walls, floors, etc. In this form it has lasting insecticidal power. The need for much field research to study its use against South African insects is emphasized.