The finding of many cases of rickets of all stages of severity is reported. The history and reported incidence of the occurrence of rickets in South Africa is reviewed. The climatic and geographical conditions in Johannesburg and the quality and quantity of its ultraviolet radiations have been analyzed and found to be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of rickets. The incidence of rickets in other parts of the world receiving adequate sunshine is mentioned and the local conditions responsible for the occurrence of rickets in these localities are discussed. The relationship that exists between urbanization and the rickets rate in a community is reviewed and the conditions and local customs responsible for rickets among non-European infants in Johannesburg is analyzed. A plea is made for adequate study of the problem of rickets in South Africa. Dietary additions of vitamin D is recommended for all urban non-European infants.
The results of a Wassermann survey of 822 Bantu hospital out-patients are presented. One hundred and forty (17%) gave a positive reaction. Of the 62 patients who came for a second confirmatory test the result was again positive in 59. The remaining 78 escaped observation.Only a small number (four) proved to be suffering from syphilis in an early infectious stage. There was one case of congenital syphilis. and one case of neurosyphilis; the remainder were suffering from late and 'latent' syphilis. The number of positive reactions in the 'married' group far exceeded those found in the 'single' group. This excess was not due to the fact that the former category contained a significant number of husbands and wives. Some observations on the Wassermann test are appended.
Ninety-four cases of strangulation of bowel are reviewed. These were encountered during a consecutive series of 152 cases of acute intestinal occlusion proved by surgery or post-mortem examination at the Coronation Hospital. The incidence of strangulation was 61.8%. The total mortality rate was 27.65%, the operative mortality 20.9%. The incidence. etiology, and pathology of strangulation is reviewed, with particular regard to the causes for the failure of collateral vessels to provide an alternative circulation following vascular occlusion, and the role of shock and toxaemia in fatal cases. Though in some centres the mortality for intestinal occlusion has been reduced to single figures, the death rate from strangulation is yet in the region of 20-40%.