Methods of estimating blood volume have been outlined briefly. A method of estimating blood volume by using dextran 6% in saline has been descriptionbed. It is suggested that this method may have some advantages over the use of dyes. However, further work is necessary before it can be advocated for general use and, in addition, it proves rather too laborious for routine use.
A paper read to the Physician's Group of the Southern Transvaal Branch of the Medical Association of South Africa on 3 July 1952. 1. The mechanism of blood pressure elevation in response to emotional stress is descriptionbed. 2. Evidence is adduced to show that in the regulation of the blood pressure, the adrenal medulla and the thyroid gland have antagonistic actions. 3. Essential hypertension is defined as a disorder in which the normal blood-pressure-raising mechanism is not countered or is inadequately countered by the thyroid gland. Thyroid insufficiency, absolute or relative is the basic factor in the problem of causation. I would like to thank Winthrop Products (pty.) Ltd., for supplies of I-noradrenaline (Levophed) and at the same time to express my gratitude to those who volunteered for the experiments.
1. A case of ruptured endometrial cysts is presented in view of its rarity and the necessity of considering its possibility in pelvic abdominal emergencies. 2. Other features pertaining to the possible origin are briefly discussed.
In retrospect we feel that it would be an advantage to reduce the amount of fluid given by using 0.2 % solution of Scoline instead of 0.1 % in long cases. Further we advocate that the Scoline solution be prepared with distilled water, so as not to interfere with the patient's electrolyte balance. In our view, the advantages of the continuous drip technique are the ease of control of respiration and the fact that the full respiration at the end of the operation is not depressed by residual relaxant. Furthermore, relaxation is easily reversible in cases of laparotomy without the use of drugs such as prostigmine, should the operation be shorter than anticipated. The danger of prolonged apnoea is a disadvantage which is partly obviated by a test dose of Scoline and the fact that apnoea can possibly be terminated by large doses of nikethamide, the use of a drip in every case has obvious disadvantages.
It was found that in -44 (55 '>u ) of cases of malignant malnutrition, the aetiology was not due primarily to nutritional deficiencies, but to a complete disorganization of the parental factor in the family unit. consequent upon remote social and economic changes. beyond the control of the individual. Some ideas of the prevalence of this social pathology have been given in the second part of this paper. In the random group of 105 families, in 15 (14%) due to various factors, the family unit was disorganized, and the children left without proper parental care. The problem of disorganization was further aggravated by the high illegitimacy rate. No less than 12 out of 30 (40 % ) of the children of the first generation produced illegitimate offspring. In half the cases these children were not cared for by their mothers, who were away permanently at work.