oa South African Medical Journal - The first symptoms of carcinoma of the oesophagus with particular reference to Amaqhakuva - a report from the republic of Transkei

Volume 55, Issue 20
  • ISSN : 0256-9574
  • E-ISSN: 2078-5135



The first symptoms of cancer of the oesophagus in 82 Xhosa patients were found to be dysphagia (43%), interscapular back pain (23%), sore throat (21 %) and epigastric pain (11 %).

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