Anthrax has been recorded in domestic animals, wildlife and humans since early times in South West Africa. Inoculation has reduced the incidence in domestic animals, but in recent years anthrax has assumed great importance in Etosha National Park where it was responsible for an estimated 54% of the total recorded mortality. From January 1966 to June 1974 the disease caused the deaths of at least 1 635 animals and affected 10 wildlife species. It was diagnosed in plains zebra, blue wildebeest, springbok, elephant, gemsbok, kudu, ostrich, giraffe, eland and cheetah.
An investigation of the digestive and renal efficiency of Hartmann's zebra has shown that digestive efficiency in these animals does not differ significantly from the domestic horse. The maximum urine osmolality recorded was 1 4655 mOsm and the mean plasma : urine concentration ratio for eight animals was 4,l indicating only moderate urine concentrating ability in this species. Behavioural thermo-regulation, particularly shade-seeking and orientation of the long axis of the body to change the light : dark ratio exposed to solar radiation, appears to be an important adaptive trait to minimise evaporative water loss.
In view of the alarmingly high mortalities which accompany springbok Antidorcas marsupialis capture operations, this paper descriptionbes the techniques for the successful capture, handling, holding and transport of these animals and the selection of a suitable long-acting neuroleptic.
A questionnaire survey on the status and distribution of mammals in South West Africa conducted by the Nature Conservation and Tourism Division formed the basis for research into the intensity of loss or damage caused by the five proclaimed problem animal species in the Territory. In the questionnaire survey Farmers were requested to state whether or not they were experiencing problems with any of the five species.