oa Madoqua - Characteristics of Lion roars in Etosha National Park

Volume 15, Issue 4
  • ISSN : 1011-5498



The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of roars, when roaring occuerred and to teat the hypothesis that lions have individual roaring patterns. For the purpose of this paper the roar is defined as the combination of moans resulting in fulI throated roars and grunts.

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