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- Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists
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- Volume 14, Issue 3, 2005
Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists - Volume 14, Issue 3, 2005
Volume 14, Issue 3, 2005
The reliability and validity of the item means and standard deviations of ordinal level response dataAuthor A.G. StaceySource: Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists 14, pp 2 –25 (2005)More Less
The debate over the appropriate analysis of ordinal level survey data has lasted for many decades. One school of thought maintains that the data can generally be regarded as interval level, whereas another asserts that the data should be rescaled before subjecting it to statistical analysis. In this study, an alternative, algorithmic rather than an arithmetic, approach is described, which involves the fitting of distributions to the observed survey data using the c 2 statistic. This distribution-fitting approach is compared to the approach that assumes an interval level scale, and the rescaling approach that uses correspondence analysis. Using a bootstrap resampling methodology, the analysis confirms that survey results may be flawed if ordinal level scales are assumed to be interval level, or if the correspondence analysis approach is applied inappropriately. The distribution-fitting approach is found to have accuracy and validity that is superior to the alternative approaches.
Source: Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists 14, pp 26 –43 (2005)More Less
The literature suggests that entrepreneurs are not only persons who start up businesses, but are also persons who are entrepreneurially orientated, in that they possess certain characteristics or traits to varying degrees. The objectives of this study were to report on the levels of students' entrepreneurial orientation in three different countries, and to establish whether significant differences exist between the students studying in the three countries concerned, regarding their level of entrepreneurial orientation. "Entrepreneurial orientation" refers to the combination of psychological traits, characteristics, attitudes and values representing the entrepreneurial prototype. The entrepreneurial prototype is an individual inclined to entrepreneurial behaviour and therefore more likely to initiate a business venture than an individual lacking these traits. Convenience sampling was used to measure the responses of 1 528 undergraduate Commerce students. The sample consisted of 758 South African, 379 American and 391 Dutch students. South Africa and the USA had three of the top four most developed entrepreneurial traits in common, and the four lowest-scoring traits in all three countries were the same. Significant differences were found between the students in the three countries, with regard to all the entrepreneurial traits investigated. The USA respondents scored significantly higher for the majority of traits under investigation.
The influence of organisational factors in small tourism businesses on the success of Internet marketingSource: Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists 14, pp 44 –58 (2005)More Less
Small businesses have been identified as a catalyst for creating jobs and generally growing the economy. One sector that is characterised by the proliferation of small businesses is that of the tourism industry. Key to this sector reaching its full potential is, however, access to markets. The Internet is seen by many as playing a valuable role in helping small tourism businesses understand their markets better, extend their reach, and serve their customers more effectively, irrespective of its geographical location. However, identifying the factors that influence the success of the use of the Internet for marketing is proving challenging. The focus of this study is the identification of those organisational factors that are present in a small tourism business irrespective of whether or not the Internet is utilised, but which will influence the success with which the Internet can be used to market the business. These are distinct from the factors implicit in the implementation of the Internet or the technology per se. If these factors can be identified and their relative influence on Internet marketing success be determined, it will allow small tourism businesses to access markets more readily. The results indicate that having an entrepreneurial orientation and understanding the needs of customers are important to the successful use of the Internet for the marketing of small tourism businesses in South Africa.
Corporate managers and their potential liability for company debts in terms of Section 424 of the Companies ActAuthor M.E. SteynSource: Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists 14, pp 59 –67 (2005)More Less
Upon registration, a company acquires juristic personality. The company as a distinct legal entity has a separate existence and neither directors nor shareholders are personally liable for the company's debts. This is the principle of limited liability. Limited liability has merits, but it also has its drawbacks. The principal drawback is that creditors of a company, especially creditors who hold no security, bear a risk when the company is liquidated owing to its inability to pay its debts. Sometimes the legislature or the court disregards the separate corporate responsibility of a company, "lifts the corporate veil" and fixes liability on the natural persons behind the company or in control of its activities. In Section 424 of the Companies Act the legislature has provided protection to creditors against the misuse of their powers by corporate managers. This literature study explains the current legal position regarding the application and interpretation of Section 424 of the Companies Act, and provides an exposition of its implications for corporate managers.