n Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists - A cross-validation study of the Performance Index

Volume 20, Issue 3
  • ISSN : 1019-567X



The leadership-for-performance framework designed by Spangenberg and Theron (2004) explains the structural relationships between leader competency potential, leadership competencies, leadership outcomes and the dimensions of organisational unit performance. The Performance Index (PI) and Leadership Behaviour Inventory (LBI) comprise the leadership-for-performance range of measures. The PI was developed as a comprehensive criterion measure of unit performance for which the unit leader could be held responsible. The basic PI structural model has been developed to explain the manner in which the various latent leadership dimensions comprising organisational unit performance are structurally inter-related. Preliminary research suggests that the basic PI structural model may have to be refined. Future research on the PI model can, however, only be justified if the basic PI structural model is shown to be structurally invariant across independent samples from the target population. To test for structural invariance, however, requires that invariance should exist in the measurement models used to operationalise the latent variables comprising the structural model in the two samples from the target population. As a necessary methodological precursor to the structural invariance study, this study investigates the extent to which the PI measurement model cross-validates across two independent samples from the same population, and thus may be considered measurement invariant.

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