n Management Dynamics : Journal of the Southern African Institute for Management Scientists - A critical review of the Burke-Litwin model of leadership, change and performance

Volume 22, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 1019-567X



This study proposes major changes to the Burke and Litwin (1992) leadership, change, and performance model against the background of significant changes in the external environment and new developments in business management. Improvements include, first, a more logical structuring without being subject to a specific leadership paradigm - a limitation that caused distortions in the original model. Second, by incorporating business processes reengineering, the strategy pillar of the adapted model has been significantly rationalised and strengthened. Third, culture is expanded to a fully-fledged pillar in the model, while human capital is included due to its growing contribution to organisational effectiveness and performance. Fourth, by modelling external contextual factors surrounding the adapted model, the new model systematically explores the interaction between leadership and the external environment. Understanding the impact of these dynamic factors is crucial in preventing well-functioning organisations from being affected by global financial disasters. Last, the reconfigured model extends the original model by adding a thorough discussion of the outcomes of leadership - namely, performance and effectiveness at the organisational, team, and individual levels.

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