South African Gastroenterology Review - Volume 8, Issue 3, 2010
Volume 8, Issue 3, 2010
Author Reid AllySource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less
"The world cup has come and gone, but I'm sure most South Africans will continue to have fond memories, not only of the soccer, but the euphoria and acknowledgement, that we as a people, hosted and enjoyed the largest sporting spectacle in the world. I must say, like the English and the Americans, I would have a few concerns over 2018 and 2022!
Getting the gist : what is the importance of molecular genetics in gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GIST) : reviewSource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8, pp 4 –5 (2010)More Less
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) is a rare disease but the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. It has an incidence of 14.5-15 per million people. GIST tumor cells originate from the precursors of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and are Kit/CD117 and CD34 positive. The key prognostic factors indicative of GIST metastasis, disease advancement and recurrence are the tumour size and the mitotic index. The anatomical site may also be informative for risk stratification. Despite existing differences in GIST clinicopathology, 75-80% of these tumors have an oncogenic mutation in the KIT (v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) or PDGFRa (platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide) genes. These gain of function mutations have been linked to GIST pathogenesis. Indeed both genes, which map to chromosome 4q12, belong to the type III tyrosine kinase family and encode highly homologous transmembrane glycoproteins. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients have an increased risk of developing GISTs, although they will rarely have any KIT or PDGFRa mutations. The treatment of GIST patients has drastically changed since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as Imatinib mesylate, which targets KIT and PDGFRa.
Source: South African Gastroenterology Review 8, pp 6 –18 (2010)More Less
Background: Traditionally, inflammatory bowel disease has been a disease entity associated with European ancestry. Despite claims of rarity, numerous studies have emerged which indicate that the prevalence of IBD has increased in various ethnic groups worldwide. We illustrate that IBD is indeed a multi-ethnic disease and the clinical characteristics of IBD in our setting are presented in this study. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study of the medical records of IBD patients presenting to the Department of Gastroenterology, area 554 of the Charlotte Makexe Johannesburg Academic Hospital was undertaken. One hundred twenty-six patients with IBD referred to this tertiary gastrointestinal centre from 2005 through 2010, were assessed. Demographic and historical characteristics, clinical features as well as drug and surgical interventions were assessed according to a predetermined patient data collection form. Results: Analyses demonstrated that 63.5% of the sample had UC, 34.1% had CD and 2.4% were diagnosed as having IC, with a female to male ratio of 1.4: 1. There were comparable numbers of White, Indian and Black patients with UC but very few Black patients contributed to the CD burden. Moreover, CD was established as a more severe disease entity as manifest by a higher proportion of extra-intestinal manifestations, in addition to higher complication and surgery rates in this group. Conclusion: Our findings show that although Caucasians still represent the greater fraction of IBD cases, the numbers of Black South Africans affected by this disease have grown. Moreover, in contrast to earlier studies, we found that disease in Black patients is milder compared to White and Indian counterparts. We have been able to illustrate that IBD is in fact a multi-racial disease entity as shown to affect various ethnic groups.
Source: South African Gastroenterology Review 8, pp 19 –24 (2010)More Less
In medicine the term cholestasis is defined as a 'clinical and biochemical syndrome that results when bile flow is impaired from the biliary system to the duodenum'. This term is preferred to obstructive jaundice because mechanical obstruction is not always present. Many patients with cholestatic liver function tests may be completely asymptomatic or present with symptoms related to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, depending on the degree and duration of cholestasis. Early biochemical markers and radiological imaging usually assist the physician in making the diagnosis, sometimes this is fairly simple and other times may be a diagnostic dilemma.
Author Johannie Du PlessisSource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less
I was fortunate enough to attend and present a poster at The Liver Meeting® 2010 presented by the American Association for the Study of liver disease (AASLD). This premier event was held at the Hynes Convention centre in Boston Massachusetts and with more that 7000 attendee's; one is destined to rub shoulders with some of the best specialists from all over the world.
Author Nazli JugbaranSource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less
The Wits Donald Gordon Medical Centre (WDGMC) was the recent host of a phenomenal interventional endoscopic workshop and highlight of the recent gastroenterology conference, hosted by the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES), in collaboration with the SA Society of Endoscopic Surgeons (SASES).
Author Nazeer Ahmed Ismail ChopdatSource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less
In March 2010 I had the opportunity to apply to UEGF for a place in there postgraduate trainee course on Cholestatic liver disease. Acceptance to such a course was based on submission and acceptance of a relevant case report abstract and discussion of a case related to Cholestatic Liver Disease. The course was limited to 150 gastroenterology and hepatology trainees from across the globe.
Author Naayil RajaballySource: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less
"Congratulations that your abstract was accepted for UEGW 2010. We are looking forward to your scientific contribution," read the email I had anxiously been waiting for. My work on Clostridium Difficile (C. diff) in a tertiary institution in South Africa, made possible by a Scholarship from the Gastro Foundation, was among the 481 abstracts accepted for oral presentation out of a total of 3333 submissions at the United European Gastroenterology Week 2010. With an average participation of 15,000, UEGW is considered a world-class congress and one of the finest platforms to present one's research in the field of gastroenterology. The bonus was undoubtedly the fact that this year, the congress was being held in Barcelona - a cosmopolitan city famous for its rich cultural and artistic heritage.
Source: South African Gastroenterology Review 8 (2010)More Less