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- Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences
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- Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences - Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
Volume 15, Issue 2, 2007
Source: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 1 –21 (2007)More Less
Activity Based Costing (ABC) has been researched extensively in developed countries. Research on these issues in South Africa is limited. This article creates a better understanding of the design of ABC systems in South Africa, comparing ABC implementation in South Africa to that in several developed/developing countries. A quantitative methodology was adopted to evaluate the extent of ABC implementation. A survey-case study methodology was used to identify reasons for implementation/non-implementation, problems and critical success factors relating to implementation. The results show that the extent of ABC implementation in South Africa is lower than that found in developed countries, but the evidence is inconclusive. Nevertheless, the results suggest that the issues facing ABC implementers in South Africa are similar to those faced in many other countries. This study provides South African companies with a comparative framework of important variables to be considered in implementing ABC.
Source: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 23 –41 (2007)More Less
The South African Institute of Chartered Accountants and the International Federation of Accountants require Information Technology (IT) to be integrated with the professional subjects, including Auditing, qualified chartered accountants need. Internationally, people want changes to Auditing teaching. The Accounting Department of Stellenbosch University developed an audit simulation of the whole audit process from client acceptance to completion. Students must prepare working papers, using substantive procedures focusing on stock and a database large enough for students to use IT. The simulation's learning objectives are integrating auditing with IT, and exposing students to as authentic an audit as possible. A questionnaire tested students' perceptions on the simulation. Responses were favourable. Respondents felt that the simulation helped them to understand auditing and showed them the practical application of IT functionalities. However, respondents complained that the simulation took too long. The principles and findings apply to simulations and the use of case studies in any environment.
Source: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 43 –63 (2007)More Less
This study investigates overtrading, which is the result of an expansion rate that is too high in relation to a particular business's structure. It often results in cash flow problems. The phenomenon of overtrading is described in a case study on Profurn. In this study, a ratio was developed that can be used to identify companies in an overtrading position. Selected variables were tested by means of the Kruskal Wallis test in order to pinpoint variables that can discriminate successfully between companies that are overtrading and ones that are not.
Overtrading occurred in 15.5% of the company years of listed South African companies between September 1989 and December 2005. Of the 35 variables tested, 31 were found to be able to discriminate statistically between company years in which overtrading occurred as opposed to ones in which it did not occur. These variables can therefore be used to profile companies that overtrade.
Is the transformation of public sector financial reporting in South Africa's provincial governments on track?Author H.A. Van WykSource: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 65 –75 (2007)More Less
The purpose of this article is to assess the state of financial reporting in provincial government departments in South Africa. One of the obstacles in transforming financial reporting in South Africa is changing from cash accounting to accrual accounting. The survey in this study revealed that, while most public sector accounting guidelines and legislation are in place, government departments are still using cash accounting. The current accounting information system seems to be unsuitable for accrual accounting. Respondents assigned a poor rating to the effectiveness of public sector financial reporting, and the slow rate at which this system is being transformed.
Author A.C. VenterSource: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 77 –93 (2007)More Less
The high occurrence of procurement fraud requires the management of an enterprise, the risk manager of the enterprise and the internal auditor to address procurement fraud risks effectively within the enterprise risk management concept. The purpose of the article is to explain a procurement fraud risk management process which will serve as a comprehensive framework for enterprise risk managers and for internal auditors to limit the enterprise's exposure to procurement fraud as far as possible. The study by Venter (2005) on which the article is based proposes a procurement fraud risk matrix which can be used to manage fraud risks within the procurement function efficiently. This matrix is based on the Committee of Supporting Organizations of the Treadway Commission's (COSO's) Enterprise Risk Management - Integrated Framework which is specifically applied to address the procurement fraud risk problem.
Application of the value chain concept in the audit of policy liabilities and the related earnings of listed South African long-term insurersAuthor S.P.J. Von WiellighSource: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 95 –111 (2007)More Less
Gaining an understanding of the business and accounting processes of the insurers concerned is a key element of the complex, high-risk external audits of listed South African long-term insurers. In this empirical study, the value chain concept developed by Porter in the 1980s is customised for listed South African long-term insurers. Furthermore, the accounting support processes that affect the high-risk components of policy liabilities and the related earnings of these insurers are identified. The generic value chain and list of accounting support processes developed in this study are useful tools to assist auditors in gaining an understanding of the business and accounting processes of these insurers.
Source: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 113 –129 (2007)More Less
The current syllabus (programme of education) prescribed by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) emphasises that it is important for students to acquire knowledge and skills in interacting with information technology (IT). One of the basic IT skills identified by SAICA is the ability of students to apply controls to personal systems in order to ensure the processing integrity of IT resources and to ensure that IT resources are secure and properly safeguarded. The research questions investigated in this article are whether and where students acquire the knowledge and skills they need in using passwords as a control mechanism, and whether they actually apply the knowledge and skills they have acquired when they access information systems and networks. On the basis of a survey, the article concludes that there is a definite increase in the level of students' knowledge of which actions are considered to be good password practices from the time when they have recently matriculated to their third year. However, it is also clear from the results of the survey that these competencies are not yet being fully applied in the real-world arena of accessing online password-protected accounts.
Source: Meditari : Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences 15, pp 131 –151 (2007)More Less
In his 2006 State of the Nation Address, President Thabo Mbeki indicated that the regulatory environment for small businesses would be improved, as this sector plays an important role in the national strategy for accelerated and shared growth. The aim of this study is to determine whether the size of an enterprise and the sector in which the enterprise operates has an impact on how the enterprise's tax responsibilities are administered and managed. A survey was conducted amongst small and medium enterprises in the manufacturing, retail and business services sectors in Gauteng. The study focused on Gauteng because the majority of small, medium and microenterprises (SMMEs) are located in this province. The study found that most small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the business services sector outsource their tax responsibilities because they lack the time needed to manage these functions. It was also found that the size and type of organisation affects the role taxation inputs play in business decisions. The SMEs included in the survey preferred a reduction in interest and penalties charged as a taxation relief measure.