n South African Psychiatry Review - The neurobiological basis of fear : a concise review : review article
|Article Title||The neurobiological basis of fear : a concise review : review article|
|© Publisher:||In House Publications|
|Journal||South African Psychiatry Review|
|Author||A. Panzer, M. Viljoen and J.L. Roos|
|Publication Date||May 2007|
|Pages||71 - 75|
|Keyword(s)||Anxiety, Conditioning, Extinction, Fear and LTP|
Anxiety disorders are amongst the most common psychiatric disorders affecting approximately 25% of all adults. Fear and anxiety have many shared neuroanatomical and neurochemical characteristics. In this paper we refer to a) fear conditioning, (i.e. after a harmless and an aversive stimulus have coincided, the harmless stimulus encountered on its own will cause fear), b) the fear response, including the effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, c) sensitization, which refers to a general hyperresponsivity of the fear circuits, d) fear memory, and e) extinction, the new learning that the harmless stimulus no longer forecasts a threat. The role of the amygdala and long-term potentiation (LTP) are discussed. Possible anatomical correlates of anxiety disorders and different therapeutic modalities, including the novel drug D-cycloserine, are briefly discussed.
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