South African Psychiatry Review - Volume 6, Issue 1, 2003
Volume 6, Issue 1, 2003
Author Christopher P. SzaboSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6 (2003)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL SA Psych Rev 2003;6:1 1 Media violence and youth behaviour to South Africa. The crime situation in the country attests to this and has been a cause for concern in the medical community.( 8, 9) Research into such behaviour amongst South African youth has shown that in a community based sample 9.6% to 13.8% had been a victim of such behaviour in various settings and 11% had been involved as perpetrators.(10) A number of possible contributory factors were suggested, including sociopolitical transformation, related to South Africa being a country in transition as well as media violence related ..
Author Richard SykesSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 4 –6 (2003)More Less
Insomnia is the most common sleep-related complaint and the second most common overall complaint (after pain) reported in primary care settings. The benzodiazepines are still extensively used in the management of insomnia. Although short-term efficacy is established, long-term efficacy remains controversial, as relevant data are scanty and relapse, rebound and dependence on withdrawal not clearly distinguished. The advent of the newer non-benzodiazepine hypnotics have also led to an increased awareness of insomnia and treatment alternatives. This article reviews current evidence for the rational use of benzodiazepines.
Author Wim J.C. VerbeeckSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 7 –10 (2003)More Less
At present, no biological or psychological tests with sufficient sensitivity or specificity can replace the meticulous process of distilling the clinical characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. The level of diagnostic confidence can be enhanced via a semi-structured interview, confirming the early onset, longitudinal persistence and multidimensional impairments. Obtaining collateral information to consolidate the retrospective symptomatology is mandatory, since individuals with chronic attentional problems are prone to recollection bias. A structured outline of the diagnostic trajectory is described, with special attention to age specific core symptoms, secondary problems and co-morbidity that can accompany or compound this not consistently recognised syndrome. Finally, potential pitfalls that can culminate in over and under diagnosis are critically examined.
Source: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 11 –20 (2003)More Less
Objectives : To examine erythrocyte membrane functions in mood disorder patients and to establish possible diagnostic marker parameter(s). <br>Design : Collection of blood samples from mood disorder patients and age-matched control volunteers. Preparation of erythrocyte membranes for the proposed studies. <br>Setting : Out patients / in patients, psychiatry ward, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India. <br>Subjects : Unipolar and bipolar subjects. Control subjects (randomly selected volunteers). <br>Results : The most significant results were a duration dependent decrease in the TPL / CHL ratio (mole : mole), changes in both the substrate and temperature kinetics properties of AChE and elevated plasma BChE activity in the mood disorder patients. <br>Conclusion : The results suggest that the altered lipid profiles and the TPL / CHL (mole : mole) ratio and the altered temperature-dependent activity coefficients of erythrocyte membrane AChE and elevated plasma BChE activities could serve as useful diagnostic pointers for mood disorders. <br>Abbreviations used : <br>ACh - Acetylcholinesterase; ACTI - Acetylthiocholineiodide; BChE - Butyrylcholinesterase; BCTI -Butyrylthiocholineiodide; CHL Cholesterol; DPH - 1,6-Diphenyl -1,3,5-hexatriene; DTNB - 5,5' - Dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid); ETPZ.HCl - Ethopropazine hydrochloride; Lyso, Lysophospholipid; PA - Phosphatidic acid; PC - Phosphatidylcholine; PE - Phosphatidylethanolamine; PC - Phosphatidylinositol; PS - Phosphatidylserine; SPM - Sphingomyelin; SDS - Sodium dodecyl sulfate; TPL - Total phospholipid.
Psychotic symptoms in post traumatic stress disorder : a case illustration and literature review : case reportSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 21 –24 (2003)More Less
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a condition being increasingly recognized. The diagnosis is based on the re-experiencing of a traumatic event. There have been reports of the presence of psychotic symptoms in some cases of PTSD. This may represent increased severity or a different diagnostic clinical entity. It has also been suggested that psychotic symptoms may be over-represented in the Hispanic population. In this manuscript, we describe a case to illustrate this relationship and we review the current literature on the relationship of psychotic symptoms among PTSD patients. The implications regarding diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis are discussed.