South African Psychiatry Review - Volume 6, Issue 4, 2003
Volume 6, Issue 4, 2003
A socio-psychological perspective on the phenomenon of infant rapes in South Africa : review articleAuthor M.C. Marchetti-MercerSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 6 –14 (2003)More Less
In the context of much social violence South Africa has recently witnessed an increase in the reported cases of rape of young children and even infants. In this article the author wishes to move away from an individual focus on the dynamics underlying the rapist but rather wants to present a socio-psychological perspective on this phenomenon. It will be argued that the rape of infants must firstly be understood within the context of rape as whole. Emphasis will also be given to specific social and political factors present in South African society which may place children at risk of abuse and sexual violence. The interpersonal relationships which may be typical of families of victims will also be explored. Finally intervention and management strategies for mental health professionals working with victims and their families will be suggested.
Author Myles D. ConnorSource: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 16 –21 (2003)More Less
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a common but heterogeneous condition in which there is a clear temporal relationship between the dementia and vascular disease. It may result from multiple large or small vessel strokes or a single strategic stroke. Subcortical ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) and imaging shows multiple deep white matter lesions or leukoaraiosis. Large vessel disease may result in VaD by causing multiple cortical and subcortical strokes, while strategic stroke VaD is caused by a single stroke in a specific area of the brain. On the basis of cinical features and imaging, definite, probable and possible VaD can be defined. Vascular risk factor reduction, particularly the use of antihypertensive agents, remains the most important means to prevent VaD. Treatment is limited although acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may have value. Treating behavioural symptoms may be difficult and newer antipsychotics as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor therapy should be considered.
Source: South African Psychiatry Review 6, pp 23 –25 (2003)More Less
<I>Background</I>: Namibia faces a daunting array of mental health problems. However, there is no Namibian screening instrument for psychological distress. <br><I>Aim</I>: To develop a Namibian version of the 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). <br><I>Methods</I>: A consecutive sample of 159 Oshiwambo speaking patients attending rural health clinics in the north of Namibia were enrolled in the study. Basic demographic data were collected and subjects asked to complete the GHQ-28 that had been translated into Oshiwambo. Thereafter all subjects were interviewed with the Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS). Using the CIS data as a marker for psychiatric caseness, the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of the Oshiwambo GHQ-28 were assessed. <br><I>Results</I>: Based on a 0-0-1-1 scoring system, the Oshiwambo GHQ-28 was found to have a sensitivity of 82.1% and a specificity of 79.4%. The ROC analysis revealed good discriminating power with an area under the curve of 0.86 <br><I>Conclusions</I>:The Oshiwambo version of the 28 item GHQ is a valid screening instrument for psychological distress in clinic attendees.