South African Psychiatry Review - Volume 7, Issue 2, 2004
Volume 7, Issue 2, 2004
Author Edith N. Madela-MntlaSource: South African Psychiatry Review 7 (2004)More Less
Lithium - an update on the mechanisms of action. Part one : pharmacology and signal transduction : review articleAuthor Jose SegalSource: South African Psychiatry Review 7, pp 4 –12 (2004)More Less
Lithium has been used clinically for about 50 years. Only in the last several years however has there been a rapid growth in our understanding of its biochemical effects. It is now clear that lithium has a complicated multitude of diverse effects in the human nervous system. This new data is helping us understand the neurobiology of bipolar disorder. The focus of this review will be to distil this new knowledge into a form that will be accesible to the clinician. It will be presented in two parts. Part one will deal primarily with pharmacology and neuronal signal transduction. Part two will focus principally on neural effects and neuroanatomical substrates. This review is designed to help the embattled clinician at the coalface stay abreast of the recent advances in this complicated field. An exhaustive in-depth analysis of biochemical action is not the intention of this work.
Author Graham ThornicroftSource: South African Psychiatry Review 7, pp 15 –21 (2004)More Less
The aims of this paper are: (i) to give an overview of the use and maturation of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in mental health services research, (ii) to indicate areas in which mental health may present particular challenges, and (iii) to outline necessary steps to strengthen the capacity to conduct better quality randomised controlled trails.
The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and usefulness of electroencephalography in psychiatry : review articleSource: South African Psychiatry Review 7, pp 23 –29 (2004)More Less
Clinical electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive, low cost, neurodiagnostic technique widely available in general and psychiatric hospitals in South Africa. Psychiatric patients are regularly referred for EEG's. The major indication for EEG in psychiatric practice is to rule out an organic cause of mental illness. Organic disease can closely mimic functional psychiatric illness. This has major implications in developing countries such as South Africa where the psychiatric effects of physical disease are particularly widespread. Organic brain syndromes often arise from potentially treatable causes.
Author Linda WetterbergSource: South African Psychiatry Review 7, pp 30 –32 (2004)More Less
<I>Objective:</I> Social anxiety among adolescents in Sweden has not been studied. This pilot study assessed the occurrence of social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden. <br><I>Method:</I> Two hundred and thirty seven students attending the first year of Swedish upper secondary school responded to a questionnaire designed to define cases based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders ( DSM-IV) criteria adapted to adolescents. <br><I>Results:</I> Twenty one per cent of the responders had impaired function due to social anxiety, one half of which was primarily related to school performance. <br><I>Conclusion:</I> This study provides preliminary support for the occurrence of a subgroup of adolescent social anxiety that primarily impairs school performance. Teachers learning to recognize these youths may implement confidence-building measures during these formative years that facilitates higher learning.