n African Journal of Psychiatry - Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa : original
|Article Title||Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa : original|
|© Publisher:||In House Publications|
|Journal||African Journal of Psychiatry|
|Affiliations||1 University of Stellenbosch, 2 University of Stellenbosch, 3 University of Stellenbosch, 4 University of Witwatersrand, 5 University of Ghent Belgium, 6 Aurum Institute, 7 Foundation for Alcohol Related Research (FARR) and 8 Foundation for Alcohol Related Research (FARR)|
|Publication Date||Sep 2011|
|Pages||298 - 305|
|Keyword(s)||Developmental Delay, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS)|
Objective: To describe the extent and nature of developmental delay at different stages in childhood in a community in South Africa, with a known high rate of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Method: A cohort of infants, clinically examined for FASD at two time periods, 7-12 months (N= 392; 45 FASD) and 17-21 months of age (N= 83, 35 FASD) were assessed using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS).
Results: Infants and children with FASD perform worse than their Non-FASD counterparts over all scales and total developmental quotients. Mean quotients for both groups decline between assessments across subscales with a particularly marked decline in the hearing and language scale at Time 2 (scores dropping from 110.6 to 83.1 in the Non-FASD group and 106.3 to 72.7 in the FASD group; P=0.004). By early childhood the developmental gap between the groups widens with low maternal education, maternal depression, high parity and previous loss of sibling/s influencing development during early childhood.
Conclusion: The FASD group show more evidence of developmental delay over both time points compared to their Non-FASD counterparts. Demographic and socio-economic factors further impact early childhood. These findings are important in setting up primary level psycho-educational and national prevention programmes especially in peri-urban communities with a focus on early childhood development and FASD.
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