The pursuit of definitive surgical cure for pelvic floor disorders leads to the continuous evolvement of reconstructive pelvic surgery. Minimal access surgery, better known as laparoscopy, are gaining ever increasing acceptance in all surgical disciplines.
Medical therapy in pregnancy is an inescapable scenario faced by all doctors. The fact that a vulnerable fetus is involved makes the situation all the more challenging. Almost all drugs on the market were not designed with pregnancy in mind and because of the fear of costly litigation, pharmaceutical companies are extremely reluctant to test and later endorse their products for use during pregnancy. Instead disclaimers are the norm. Nonetheless medical conditions in pregnant women do need to be treated. This demands that physicians understand the pregnancy physiology and fetal development, stay abreast of new information and maintain a flexible approach in order to best manage the mother and her unborn child. This article covers basic principles and then illustrates this flexible approach using three diagnostic areas where new information has recently become available.
Headaches are a common problem in pregnancy and often receive scant attention from the clinician. This may be due to an incomplete understanding of the condition. Although sometimes innocuous, headaches are also associated with some very dangerous conditions that occur during pregnancy. This manuscript provides a classification for headaches in pregnancy as well as the appropriate workup and management for this condition.