Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum - Volume 20, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2, 2010
Author Mike SathekgeSource: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 20, pp 37 –39 (2010)More Less
The time has come for the South African medical community to graduate from viewing PET as "Pretty Expensive Technology" or "Promising Emerging Technology". For Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is now the standard of care in initial staging, monitoring the response to therapy, and management of various cancers. This is due to fact that PET is a molecular imaging procedure that allows us to obtain three-dimensional images of what is happening in a patient's body at the molecular and cellular levels. The commonly used radiopharmaceutical, FDG, which is an analogue of glucose, provides qualitative and quantitative metabolic information that is valuable for diagnosis and management of tumors or cancer cells. Of importance, PET is now combined with morphologic information obtained with CT.
Author L.C. SnymanSource: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 20, pp 43 –46 (2010)More Less
In many settings, especially in private practice, transvaginal ultrasound is used routinely for early pregnancy confirmation. Routine ultrasound in early pregnancy appears to enable better gestational age assessment, earlier detection of multiple pregnancies and earlier detection of clinically unsuspected foetal malformation at a time when termination of pregnancy is still possible and safe. In cases of complicated early pregnancy and early pregnancy failure, ultrasound, used in conjunction with the history, physical and gynaecological examination and indicated laboratory investigations, is a very useful modality in the investigation and diagnostic process.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 20, pp 56 –58 (2010)More Less
Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis and therapy has been made possible with the invention of newer imaging modalities including 3D and 4D ultrasound. Two dimensional ultrasound remains the method by which most fetal structural abnormalities are screened and diagnosed, however 3D and 4D are being used increasingly for the examination of the human fetus. Two dimensional scanning allows visualisation of static images while 3D and 4D imaging adds a further dimension to fetal study by allowing interaction with volume data sets to examine anatomic structures of interest in planes of section. This article will focus on the role of 2D, 3D and 4D ultrasonography in the diagnosis of fetal malformations and their value as a primary or adjunct diagnostic tool.
Author I. BoshoffSource: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 20, pp 59 –62 (2010)More Less
A pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) is defined as visualising an empty uterus on transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS), with no signs of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) or an ectopic pregnancy, in a woman with a positive pregnancy test. The majority of women will subsequently be diagnosed with spontaneously resolving pregnancies (failing PULs) or intra uterine pregnancies (IUPs) that were too early to visualise on TVS, but a few will be diagnosed with ectopic pregnancies that were too early to visualise or were missed on the initial TVS. The failing PUL group will include both ectopic pregnancies and failing IUPs, since the location of the pregnancy may never be determined.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 20, pp 64 –66 (2010)More Less
Epithelial ovarian cancer is mostly a disease of the peritoneal surfaces of the abdomen. The disease often causes disseminated small volume implants with a consistency similar to that of normal tissue rather than a large identifiable tumour mass, usually with the exception of the pelvic ovarian tumour. Imaging for ovarian cancer is therefore problematic and especially peritoneal disease, nodal deposits and omental disease are difficult to demonstrate accurately.