Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum - Volume 22, Issue 3, 2012
Volume 22, Issue 3, 2012
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 22, pp 1 –3 (2012)More Less
Over a quarter of the world's population are at risk of parasitic infections. The majority of these infections are confined to the world's poverty belt, which is largely in sub-Saharan Africa. Dangerous, debilitating and chronic infections add to the burden of people already disadvantaged by poverty. Women constitute over 67% of the total population of Africa, and they suffer the most from the effects of poverty. Thus, a focus on African women is vital. While HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria are well known, the so called "big three" with substantive efforts to prevent and control these infections in communities, there are many lesser known infections that cause persistent morbidity. "Neglected tropical diseases" (NTDs) are the tropical infections once the "big three" have been taken out.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 22, pp 7 –12 (2012)More Less
In the beginning of the 20th century, the only explanation that was offered to a small baby born was that of prematurity. Fetal growth was defined by birth weight alone. The concept that a fetus might suffer poor growth in utero became recognized in the 1960's. In 1963 Lubchenco and colleagues showed that the classification of neonates by birth weight percentile had a significant prognostic advantage. This classification improved the detection of neonates with intra uterine growth restriction and those at risk of adverse health events throughout life.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 22, pp 15 –21 (2012)More Less
An overview is given on selected cost-drivers within an assisted reproduction technology (ART) laboratory, such as procedural costs; sperm preparations; laboratory supplies including embryo culture media and cryopreservation. Depending on the nature of an ART unit, i.e. private vs. public/tertiary, the structure of the unit will differ with regards to costs, services offered, and general patient population. ART laboratory equipment, culture media and disposables are imported from various parts of the world to South Africa. Costs will be influenced by the choice of ART diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, disposables and devices, whereby laboratory costs can escalate to near 50% of ART fees payable in the private sector. The ultimate goal of an ART treatment should be to achieve a healthy singleton as cost effectively as possible, especially in a developing country.
Source: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 22, pp 23 –26 (2012)More Less
Gestational diabetes is a carbohydrate intolerance that is first detected in pregnancy and usually disappears after birth. It is characterised by fasting and post-prandial hyperglycemia. The immediate maternal and fetal consequences of gestational diabetes on pregnancy are well known. During the last decade, there has been increasing evidence suggesting that women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome in later life. A meta-analysis of 20 cohort studies involving 675 455 women reported that women with gestational diabetes had a 7.5-fold increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those women who had a normoglycemic pregnancy (RR 7.43, 95% CI 4.79-11.51). Women with a history of gestational diabetes had a relative risk of 4.69 within 5 years of pregnancy and this risk doubled to 9.34 after 5 years.
Author B.G. LindequeSource: Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum 22, pp 29 –30 (2012)More Less
The generally used way of defining impairment when referring to medical practitioners is the inability to practice medicine with reasonable skill and safety for patients. This may be due to progressive physical or mental illness of the practitioner, loss of motor skills, deterioration through ageing or excessive use or abuse of alcohol or drugs, be it high schedule medication or illicit drugs (AMA 2011, Dhai 2006). It is important to note that the entire projection of the statement is towards the patient, care of the patient and safety aspects of the patients. A practitioner who may be impaired would internalise the dilemma but the reality is that the interest of the patient is paramount and that dictates the dealings with the practitioner.