oa Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - Ophthalmic loco-regional anaesthesia : reducing discomfort during injection : review

Volume 14, Issue 2
  • ISSN : 2220-1181
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1173



Loco-regional anaesthesia is commonly used for both intraocular and extraocular surgical procedures, although the provision and use of the anaesthetic technique varies worldwide. Injection techniques (retrobulbar, peribulbar and sub-Tenon's blocks) are associated with significant pain; indeed, many patients have a fear of pain. Discomfort during injection can, however, be reduced and patients can be made comfortable through reassurance, careful performance of the technique and the provision of sedation and / or analgesia. In this article, the authors describe common loco-regional anaesthetic techniques and measures to reduce discomfort during injection, thus improving patient satisfaction.

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Article metrics loading...


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error