oa Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - Practical perioperative pain control in children and adults : review

Volume 14, Issue 6
  • ISSN : 2220-1181
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1173



Acute injuries, which include surgical operations, cause a number of physiological changes. Peripheral sensitisation occurs after injury to a nerve (cut skin, surgery to tissue) when an increase in response to stimuli by the peripheral nervous system takes place. Nerve fibres, which do not usually transmit pain, are now more sensitive, and do send painful stimuli. This will impact on the central nervous system, where increased noxious input causes a number of different responses. These include muscle spasms and increased sympathetic stimulation. The resultant increased oxygen and calorie consumption will impact particularly on the growth of neonates and infants.

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