oa Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - In vivo optical spectroscopy (INVOS) and arterial lines : a must in shoulder surgery? : refresher course

Volume 17, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 2220-1181
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1173



Monitoring physiological parameters has changed the face of anaesthesia. We have become accustomed to the safety margins that the pulse oximeter, capnograph, non-invasive blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) leads provide us, especially in the supine position. However, it is a changing science as new monitoring systems come into the market, and as such, we have to adjust our anaesthetic techniques in order to provide the safest anaesthetic for our patients, especially if it is performed on patients in unusual positions.

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