oa Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - A brief overview of transesophageal echocardiography : SASA main conference texts

Volume 20, Issue 1
  • ISSN : 2220-1181
  • E-ISSN: 2220-1173



Since the first report as an intraoperative monitor device of the left ventricular function in 1979, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become additionally an important diagnostic tool and a procedural adjunct in cardiac surgery. The indications and contraindications guidelines for perioperative TEE examination have been defined by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists 1996 and updated 2010.

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