Since the first report as an intraoperative monitor device of the left ventricular function in 1979, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has become additionally an important diagnostic tool and a procedural adjunct in cardiac surgery. The indications and contraindications guidelines for perioperative TEE examination have been defined by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists 1996 and updated 2010.
Out-of-hospital surgical procedures are a rapidly growing market. This has led to surgical procedures that were previously limited to the hospital operating room, with general anaesthesia being performed outside the hospital with sedation and regional anaesthesia. Breast surgery, whether cosmetic, reconstructive or diagnostic, also follows this trend. The aim of this refresher course is to give an overview of the nerve supply to the breast, to explain the type of blocks used and to provide an overview of the sedation technique. The audience should have a better acceptance of performing procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) for this type of surgery out of hospital after this overview. The author will also provide an overview during the presentation of his own current practice of performing these procedures.
Immobilisation and anaesthesia of elephants may be required for various reasons, such as the capture, transport and clinical examination of captive animals, e.g. at a zoological park, or for minor surgical procedures. General anaesthesia is required for wound treatment, i.e trunk lacerations and dental surgery, or population control, i.e. laparoscopic vasectomy.