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- Volume 8, Issue 4, 2002
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - Volume 8, Issue 4, 2002
Volume 8, Issue 4, 2002
Author Christina LundgrenSource: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... EDITORIAL Professor Christina Lundgren - Editor-in-chief This penultimate edition of SAJAA comprises two research articles and the full set of Conscious Sedation Guidelines, both for children and adults. My sincere thanks go to Professor David Morrell for all the hard work entailed in updating the "Guidelines to the safe use of Sedation for Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Palliative Procedures in Adults." SASA Council gives its full support to these guidelines, which have been drawn up primarily with patient safety in mind. More and more anecdotal cases are being drawn to our attention where patient safety appears ..
Attenuation of the haemodynamic response to placement of the Mayfield skull pin head holder : alfentanil versus scalp block : research articleSource: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8, pp 4 –11 (2002)More Less
Introduction : Application of the Mayfield clamp causes a significant haemodynamic response. Different methods have been used to attenuate this response. We compared two of these methods, namely alfentanil bolus (Group A) and nerve block of the scalp (Group B). <br>Method : Twenty-two patients entered the study. Anaesthesia was standardised using thiopental, sufentanil, vecuronium, isoflurane, oxygen and air. Group A patients received alfentanil 10 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> 90 seconds before clamp placement and group B patients received a scalp block with lignocaine 4-5 mg kg<sup>-1</sup> as a 1% solution after intubation. Blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded before, during and 30 s, 60 s, 120 s, 240 s and 480 s after clamp placement. <br>Results : For group A, the mean maximum changes in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were, 34%, 39%, 35% and 20% respectively. The corresponding values for Group B were 9% (p=0, 004), 16% (p=0, 009), 13% (p=0, 0066) and 10% (p=0, 0901) respectively. <br>Conclusion : The scalp block is significantly more effective in attenuating the blood pressure response to clamp placement (p<0.05).
The effectiveness of analgesic electrotherapy in the control of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy : research articleSource: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8, pp 12 –18 (2002)More Less
Objective : To investigate the usefulness of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and electroacupuncture in managing the pain associated with diabetic neuropathy. <br>Research Design and Methods : A randomized, comparative, placebo controlled study was performed on a group of 100 patients diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy, at the 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Silesian Medical Academy, Katowice, Poland and the Pain Clinic, Mayo Medical Centre of South Africa, Johannesburg. The change in pain perceived was assessed after a course of analgesic electrotherapy using a visual analogue scale as well as changes in use of analgesics and walking ability. <br>Results : The level of pain reported and use of analgesics dropped significantly after the electrotherapy course, compared to the control group. Walking ability improved significantly in patients reporting pain relief. There was no statistically significant difference between the results obtained in the Type 1 and Type 2 patients. Electrotherapy did not produce any side effects. <br>Conclusions : Analgesic electrotherapy, which includes electroacupuncture and TENS, is an effective, affordable and convenient treatment of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy. If correctly applied, analgesic electrotherapy does not produce any side effects.
Guidelines for the safe use of sedation for diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative procedures in adults : guidelinesSource: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8, pp 20 –24 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... Guidelines for the safe use of sedation for diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative procedures in adults 1. Introduction The safety of the procedures using sedation continues to give cause for concern, particularly when performed outside the operating room in the absence of personnel with skills in the administration of anaesthesia. 1.1 Objectives The objective of this guideline is to promote the appropriate use of anxiolytic and sedative drugs by medical practitioners during diagnostic, ..
Source: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8, pp 26 –35 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... GUIDELINES - PAEDIATRIC Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - September 2002 26 Guidelines for sedation-analgesia in children sedation, deep sedation and general anaesthesia. The transition from one level to another is not finite and a child may pass easily from a light level of sedation to general anaesthesia. This is particularly evident in infants and young children and more likely when the painful stimuli, or the cause for discomfort, have been removed. This continuum is not drug specific since these various levels can be achieved with virtually all sedative agents and particularly when they are used in combination ..
Source: Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia 8 (2002)More Less
Extracted from text ... CPD QUESTIONNAIRE Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - September 2002 36 Subscribe to the SAJAA and earn 15 CPD points per year CPD reference number A008/016/03/2002 Continuing Professional Development Point Questionnaire Accredited by the Wits CPD Office 1. Application of the Mayfield clamp produces haemodynamic changes (a) true (b) false 2. These haemodynamic changes are insignificant (a) true (b) false 3. Administration of clonidine may increase intracranial pressure (a) true (b) false 4. A scalp block may be done by blocking only the auricular- temporal nerve (a) true (b) false 5. An alfentanil bolus attenuates the haemodynamic response ..