Medical Technology SA - Volume 19, Issue 1, 2005
Volume 19, Issue 1, 2005
Source: Medical Technology SA 19 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY SA 2 JUNE 2005 VOL. 19 NO. 1 Editorial This editorial is dedicated to Dr. Anthonuis Willem van Rijswijk. Willie, as we all know him, decided not to act further as "Scientific Editor in Chief" of Medical Technology SA, the official publication of the Society of Medical Laboratory Technologists of SA (SMLTSA). He served as editor for the last 9 years. The Publications Committee of the SMLTSA regrets the absence of Dr Van Rijswijk's experience, knowledge and leadership. This is indeed a loss to the profession of Medical Technology. Dr van Rijswijk is at present Accreditation and ..
The development and integration of molecular genetic and cytogenetic modules in the Biomedical Technology curriculumAuthor Johanna C.A. JamisonSource: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 3 –5 (2005)More Less
The emerging diagnostic field of molecular genetics demands for appropriately and adequately trained medical technologists. The proposal for the inclusion of genetic and cytogenetic modules in the National Diploma and B.Tech Degree programmes has widely been accepted last year. This positive response lead to the development of these modules, but the integration of the proposed modules in the existing diploma programme remains challenging. Various factors will determine whether all or only some of the proposed modules will be accepted and integrated.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 6 –8 (2005)More Less
Lithium assays are carried out essentially to ensure patient compliance and to avoid toxicity. All existing methods employ sophisticated instruments which are not readily available in especially smaller laboratories. This spectrophotometric method for lithium assays utilizes a stable liquid reagent which can be used manually on a basic spectrophotometer or it can also be adapted for automated clinical analyzers. <br>Due to the demand and urgency of our lithium requests we have decided to research a method which can be used routinely, give rapid results and be easily adapted onto our existing chemical analyzer.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 9 –14 (2005)More Less
Approximately 6% of patients receiving radiotherapy show signs of late toxicity in normal tissue many months after treatment has been completed. The Leukocyte Apoptosis Assay (LAA) has been developed to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity of normal tissue based on the radiation-induced cytotoxic response of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be observed after radiation exposure and can be evaluated using flow cytometry. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the LAA assay and to standardise it in South Africa. Briefly, heparinised blood was collected and exposed in vitro to 0Gy (control), 2Gy and 8Gy gamma radiation. One sample was exposed to 0Gy, 2Gy, 4gy and 8gy gamma radiation and compared to 0Gy, 1Gy, 2Gy, 3Gy and 4Gy neutron radiation. After 48 hours, lymphocytes were collected and prepared for flow cytometric analysis using FITC-conjugated anti-CD4 and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Apoptosis was assessed by measuring internucleosomal DNA degradation using propidium iodide (PI) staining. Percentage radiation-induced apoptosis was determined for each sample. Results showed a clear dose response curve for both gamma and neutron exposure and apoptosis after neutron exposure was higher than at iso-equivalent gamma doses. Although inter donor variation was observed, intra donor variation was low where the mean SD was 1.61 for CD4 and 2.16 for CD8. Results were consistent across cell type and the study therefore yielded enough data to base radiosensitivity measurements on CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes. In the clinical setting, patients showing a low apoptotic response should be considered at risk for developing late effects whereas patients who do not present as radiosensitive may receive increased doses of radiation. The LAA would be able to identify radiosensitive patients, thereby enabling the oncologist to stratify each patient to plan an effective treatment regime.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 15 –18 (2005)More Less
Von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is a bleeding disorder caused by either quantitative (type 1 and 3) or qualitative (type 2) defects of von Willebrand factor (vWF). No single test is available that provides appropriate information about the various functions of vWF and the laboratory diagnosis of vWD is based on a panel of tests that includes the measurement of factor VIII coagulant activity (VIIIC), vWF antigen (vWF:Ag), vWF activity as measured by ristocetin cofactor activity (vWFR:Co), vWF multimer analysis, ristocetin induced platelet agglutination (RIPA), the factor VIII binding assay of plasma vWF and the bleeding time. Due to the heterogeneity of vWF defects and the variables that interfere with vWF levels, a correct diagnosis of types and subtypes may sometimes be difficult but is very important for therapy. Furthermore, the Ristocetin Cofactor test and the RIPA test are based on platelet agglutination in reaction with the non-physiological antibiotic, ristocetin. These tests also have low sensitivity and are difficult to standardise. Therefore, several analyses (tests) are required to diagnose vWD and it is important to take the pitfalls that these tests are subject to in consideration in the diagnosis of vWD. <br>In this article, the laboratory diagnosis of vWD is presented on patients with type 1, 2A, 2B and 2M vWD. The diagnosis is done by using an algorithm that is proposed by the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of vWD in Italy. The pitfalls in this diagnosis of vWD are outlined by 4 other patients.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 19 –21 (2005)More Less
A survey on the quality of service provided by state laboratories in the Limpopo Province was conducted during the period 2000 - 2002. The focus was on accuracy and precision. The service quality evaluation was based on standard deviation index, % deviation and % clinically rejectable results. The scores obtained were evaluated in terms of internationally pre-determined cut-off limits. Education and training were cited by 97% of the interviewees as the major contributory factors to the poor performance. <br>Subsequent to the discussion, a course in quality assurance was designed, presented and evaluated, as above. Although the postintervention performance results did not meet the international performance standard at the given time yet; they were much closer to norm and significantly better than the pre-course performance results. <br>The conclusion is that newly designed course will contribute in reaching the international cut-off standard for clinical laboratories.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 22 –23 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY SA 22 JUNE 2005 VOL. 19 NO. 1 1. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is the carrier of factor VII in plasma and a deficiency or abnormality of vWF results in an impairment of blood coagulation. (a) True (b) False 2. The RCo/Ab ratio is necessary to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 vWD. (a) True (b) False 3. The CBA should be included as a useful diagnostic test in the profile of vWD diagnosis to counteract the pitfalls in the diagnosis of this disease. (a) True (b) False 4. After an oral dose of lithium, the ..