Medical Technology SA - Volume 19, Issue 2, 2005
Volume 19, Issue 2, 2005
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 3 –9 (2005)More Less
This study analysed the baseline dietary intake of people living with HIV / AIDS in the African community of Bloemfontein. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake of both macronutrients and micronutrients in 35 HIV-positive / AIDS patients. The patients demonstrated energy and dietary intake of major macronutrients higher than the estimated energy intake (EER) and recommended daily allowance (RDA) respectively and this tended to be higher (P<0.05) in males than in females. The result also showed that the mineral and trace element dietary intake exceeded the RDA / AI (adequate intake), except for iodine (82.9%) and selenium (40%). The majority of the patients reported adequate intake of most vitamins; however a relatively high percentage of the patients indicated an inadequate intake for folate (34.3%) and vitamin D (25.7%). It is envisaged that the high dietary intake of major macronutrients and micronutrients will help in maintaining the nutritional status and in reducing wasting in the patients. However, the relatively high percentage of the patients with an inadequate intake of iodine, selenium, folate and vitamin D is of great concern and calls for urgent attention, hence further in-depth research is recommended.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 11 –15 (2005)More Less
<I>In vitro</I> exposure of peripheral lymphocytes to ionising radiation results in the formation of small chromosome fragments (micronuclei) that may persist for the lifetime of the cell. An increased frequency of micronuclei in a cell may be considered as a biomarker of permanent genotoxic damage. This study investigated the response of isolated lymphocytes to two types of radiation, i.e. low-LET (low linear energy transfer) and high-LET radiation. <BR>Micronucleus formation in isolated lymphocytes was studied by employing the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Cells from one donor were isolated, stimulated with a mitogen (PHA), irradiated with both gamma and neutron radiation and incubated at 37ºC and 5% CO2 for 44 hours after which cyokinesis was blocked by adding Cytocalasin B. After a total incubation period of 72 hours, cells were harvested and prepared for analysis. Micronuclei were analysed with fluorescent microscopy and doseresponse curves were constructed. <BR>Interexperimental variation between the three experiments was unusually high. This appeared to be due to different lots of PHA that were used during the study and should be investigated further. The assay was sensitive enough to distinguish between low- and high- LET radiation doses above 0.5 Gy. Lymphocytes responded to both radiation qualities in a dose responsive manner.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19, pp 16 –18 (2005)More Less
The multimeric analysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF) is utilised for von Willebrand factor disease (VWD) subclass identification and is important for treating purposes. A highly sensitive and rapid method for the visualisation of the multimeric structure of VWF in plasma and platelets was described by Krizek et al in 2000 . This method uses a western blot technique where horizontal agarose electrophoresis is followed by the transfer of the VWF onto a polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The multimeric pattern of VWF is visualized by immunolocalisation and luminographic detection and no radioactivity is used. We modified this method comprehensively to increase its sensitivity and to reduce the cost and duration of the test. We used one in stead of two localisation antibodies and thereby reduced the immunolocalisation time by more than two hours. This also reduced the cost of the procedure. We further reduced the cost by using two carbon plates for blotting in stead of a blotter instrument. A total cost reduction of 40% could be achieved. A higher sensitivity was obtained by degassing the agarose before the casting process. The higher sensitivity is reflected by the fact that differences between the multimer patterns of type 2M and normal patients could be detected.
Source: Medical Technology SA 19 (2005)More Less
Extracted from text ... MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY SA VOL. 19 NO. 2 DECEMBER 2005 19 1. The effects of HIV infection on the nutritional status are not likely to be more pronounced among under-privilege populations with a low dietary intake (a) True (b) False 2. Selenium appears important in reducing the virulence of HIV and slowing the disease progression, while a positive association has been noted between the dietary intake of zinc and the CD4 cell count of HIV-infected persons (a) True (b) False 3. Niacin, riboflavin, B6, B12, C and folate are water-soluble Vitamins (a) True (b) False 4. Vitamin C can stimulate ..