Medical Technology SA - Volume 22, Issue 1, 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1, 2008
Author Mathilda ClaassenSource: Medical Technology SA 22 (2008)More Less
The NHLS states that the objectives of the NHLS Research Trust Grants is to (1) provide support for the conduct of high quality research that will advance the knowledge base and improve practice in medical pathology, (2) facilitate the creation of opportunities for networking and scientific collaboration locally and internationally, (3) enable the acquisition of minor but critical research equipment in support of the research endeavour and (4) support opportunities for the training of junior staff and postgraduate students in medical pathology.
Source: Medical Technology SA 22, pp 3 –4 (2008)More Less
Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is a benign neoplasm of salivary gland origin. Despite its epithelial origin, the neoplastic cells produce several mesenchymal tissue components including connective tissue ground substance, cartilage and bone. In this study we employed histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques in order to demonstrate the status of collagen type I - IV in PA. Wax blocks of 9 PA cases were retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Pathology at the University of Limpopo. Five micron thick sections were prepared from each block and subjected to the following staining techniques : Hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius, reticulin, Massons trichrome and the modified Pascal immunoperoxidase technique for collagen type IV. This study demonstrated collagen type IV only in the vascular and epithelial basement membranes. The capsule and coarse septa contained collagen type I. Foci of collagen type II were observed running in a perpendicular orientation with collagen type III in myxoid areas. The study further demonstrated the potential of pleomorphic adenomas to synthesize collagen type II and III, the former which may represent the matrix for future mineralized tissue deposits, Masson-Trichrome and reticulin stains were observed not to contribute to collagen typing in PA's.
Source: Medical Technology SA 22, pp 5 –7 (2008)More Less
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a common multicentric neoplastic proliferation of endothelium of the skin and oral mucosa in patients suffering of the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. The role of HHV-8 (human herpes virus-8) in the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma is beyond doubt. Due to variable results reported on the presence of HHV-8 in tissue biopsies of Kaposi's sarcoma, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of different laboratory techniques on the success rate of demonstrating the viral antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin-wax embedded tissue of diagnosed cases of skin and oral mucosal Kaposi's sarcoma. Three micron thick tissue sections of routinely fixed paraffin wax blocks of 44 cases of KS were prepared for in-situ hybridization and stained by using the following kits of Dako Cytomation: Universal Peroxidase LSAB®2 (with and without Pascal pressure chamber treatment), CSA II Biotin Free Tyramide Signal Amplification System, In-Situ Hybridization and Envision. This study demonstrated a wide range of positivity between the techniques employed. LSAB stained sections without Pascal pressure chamber treatment failed to demonstrate positive staining. In-situ hybridization and Pascal pressure chamber treated LSAB®2 stained sections yielded the most positive cases. Due to cost implications the latter technique was found to be the method of choice to demonstrate HHV-8 in wax embedded tissue.
Source: Medical Technology SA 22, pp 9 –12 (2008)More Less
Drug abuse is considered to be a major public health problem, particularly among school-attending adolescents and young adults studying at tertiary institutions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of substance abuse among medical students at a university and to evaluate the negative impact of these drugs on the students' academic performance and social life. The study was conducted amongst medical students at a university located in the southern rural part of St Lucia, West Indies and was designed to be a cross-sectional survey using self-administered anonymous questionnaires, which is a modified version of the World Health Organisation questionnaire designed to determine student drug abuse. One hundred preclinical medical students, 57 males and 43 females took part in the survey, with ages ranging from 19 to 45 years and a mean age of 26.04 ± 5.17 years.
The results indicated that 94% of the respondents had used drugs before. Alcohol was the commonest substance of abuse (73%) with the commonest predisposing factor to drug use being social-peer pressure (79%). The negative impact of drug use was seen mostly on their academic performances (16%), followed by their social life, (12%) and financial situation (7%). A strong correlation was found between substance affordability and availability with a statistical significance of p < 0.01. Most of the respondents were introduced to substance abuse by their friends. The most noticeable effect of drug / substance abuse on the students was reported to be class absenteeism (12%).
As the prevalence of drug abuse was found to be very high in this study, it is of significant importance that the use of psychoactive drugs among university students be studied further as to find a solution to this ever-increasing problem.