Medical Technology SA - Volume 23, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 23, Issue 2, 2009
Mechanism of cell death of lymphocytes and neutrophils exposed to fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A : peer reviewed original articleAuthor Jamila Khatoon AdamSource: Medical Technology SA 23, pp 5 –10 (2009)More Less
Background: This research was a preliminary study to determine effect of mycotoxins, Fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A, on immune cells, that is the mechanism involved in the death of immune cells.
Methods: Lymphocytes and neutrophils were isolated from the blood of five healthy individuals and purified using differential hypaque gradient centrifugation. These were then exposed to fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A at a predetermined LD50 for these mycotoxins. The LD50 for a 2 hour exposure of Fumonisin B1 was 25 μg/ml and for a 23 h exposure of Ochratoxin A it was 50 μg/ml. Cell suspensions left unexposed to mycotoxins made up the negative control. The mechanism of cell death was measured using immunocytochemistry and morphological changes were observed by Light Microscopy (LM).
Results: There was a decrease in cell viability of lymphocytes and neutrophils exposed to fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A. Immunolabelling experiments showed distinct fragmentation of DNA.
Conclusion: These results indicate that fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A cause the death of lymphocytes and neutrophils by apoptosis and thus have asuppressive effect on the immune system which may induce or cause certain diseases in which these toxins are implicated.
The growth response of Escherichia Coli 0111 subjected to sublethal high hydrostatic pressure : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 23, pp 11 –15 (2009)More Less
Escherichia coli O111, in peptone water, was subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) of 200 MPa for 15 minutes at 8 and 50 °C. Sub-culturing was performed and growth responses evaluated at 0, 6, 18, 24, 30, 42 and 48 hours. Percentage differences between test and control cells were calculated and results showed that E. coli O111 was only sublethally injured and able to repair itself after incubation in an enrichment broth. Sub lethally injured microorganisms could still present a potential threat given that they are able to repair themselves under suitable conditions. It is advisable to consider enrichment for at least 18 hours prior to selective cultivation. The concentration of bacteria would also dictate the magnitude of the HHP being applied. Further studies should be conducted to assess the virulence of post-HHP E. coli O111, as metabolic adaptation and cell repair might also have an impact on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toxin structure, the ability to form biofilm, as well as the accuracy of serological assessment.
Oral antihyperglycaemic agents in diabetes; correlation of HbA1c and biochemical analytes of microvascular renal involvement : peer reviewed short articleSource: Medical Technology SA 23, pp 16 –18 (2009)More Less
Background: This was a pilot study that aimed to perform a statistical correlation between glycocylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and biochemical predictors of renal involvement in type 2 diabetic patients, namely, serum creatinine and urine microalbumin, in diabetes type 2 patients treated oral antihyperglycaemics. The biochemical measurements were also correlated with the patients' age, duration of diabetes and their body weight.
Methods: The study was performed at the Centre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. A sample of 43 diabetes type 2 patients (23 females and 20 males), age (33-74 yrs), body weight (46Kg-121.5Kg), and duration of diabetes (1-22 years) participated in this study. All patients were on treatment with one or a combination of Sulfonylurea and / or the Biguanide compounds. Laboratory measurements of HbA1c, serum creatinine and urine microalbumin were done for each patient.
Results: There was no statistical correlation between HbA1c and either serum creatinine or urine microalbumin, nor between the biochemical analytes and patients' age, body weight and duration of diabetes.
Conclusions: Although we cannot generalise the results of this study because of the limited patient sample, the possible explanations for our results could be the biological variation of HbA1c, plasma glucose variability affecting results of HbA1c measurements or physiologic sources of variation in diabetic complications beyond glycemic control.
Continuing professional development (CPD) : reflective practice and personal portfolio's. The United Kingdom (U.K.) experience : peer reviewed brief communicationAuthor Warren MauleSource: Medical Technology SA 23, pp 19 –22 (2009)More Less
Continuing professional development (CPD) is a process of lifelong learning, which enables Biomedical Scientists in the United Kingdom (U.K.) to expand and fulfill their personal and professional potential, as well as meeting the present and future needs of patients and deliver health outcomes and priorities. The Health Professions Council (HPC) in U.K has set standards for CPD. They define CPD as 'a range of learning activities through which health professionals maintain and develop throughout their career to ensure they retain their capacity to practice safely, effectively and legally within their evolving scope of practice.' Registrants in the U.K. have a professional responsibility to adhere to these standards, in order to remain on the HPC register and to practice as a Biomedical Scientist. This can be optimized by adopting reflective learning as well as the compilation of a personal portfolio. This brief communication aims to highlight CPD for Biomedical Scientists in the U.K., and the necessity of reflective practice and personal portfolios in order to facilitate their own CPD, as well demonstrate continuing competence to a variety of stakeholders.
Source: Medical Technology SA 23, pp 23 –29 (2009)More Less
Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is a form of phototherapy which involves the application of low power monochromatic and coherent light to injuries and lesions. Re-epithelialisation of skin wounds begin hours after injury and depends upon the migration of keratinocytes from the margins of the wound across the wounded area before the onset of proliferation. Laser therapy leads to a complex set of physiological interactions at the cellular level that reduces acute inflammation, reduces pain and accelerates tissue healing. Compromised cells and tissue respond more readily to laser therapy than normal healthy cells. Laser therapy aims to normalize cell function and in doing so can be used to restore homeostasis. This review article focuses on the effect of LLLT on keratinocyte migration and proliferation specifically for wound healing. The review also addresses the role of laser and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wound healing and also proposes that fibroblasts and not keratinocytes may be the preferred target for laser therapy. The results of many current studies are controversial and warrant further investigation. Despite the negative reports, there are many scientific studies that confirm the beneficial effects of laser therapy.