Medical Technology SA - Volume 24, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 24, Issue 2, 2010
Author W.J. MauleSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 4 –8 (2010)More Less
There is no doubt that Prof. Sir John Dacie was one of the leading figures in haematology of the 20th century. His detailed approach to the diagnosis of patients with haematological abnormalities through his meticulous attention to detail especially in the laboratory enabled him to define many new diseases such as the haemolytic anaemia's. His contribution has laid the firm foundation for their further elucidation using the techniques of protein chemistry, red cell (RBC) membrane studies, and molecular biology. Unselfishly this annotation gives an account of his career, concentrating on his influence on haematological Biomedical Scientists throughout the world, and his role in the development of haematology both in the U.K. and internationally. It will also describe his approach to the practice of haematology from a clinical standpoint but perhaps more importantly in regard to Biomedical Scientists, the laboratory aspects of his work.
Source: Medical Technology SA 24 (2010)More Less
Source: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 9 –13 (2010)More Less
The objective of this study was to assess the frequency and nature of health care worker (HCW) - patient contact in ICUs in a Bloemfontein hospital by observing the compliance and technique of hand hygiene among HCWs before and after patient contact. The nature and frequency of patient contact, the hand hygiene compliance and hand-washing techniques of HCWs were observed unobtrusively to reflect the baseline compliance according to the protocol prescribed by the infection control committee at this hospital. In addition, factors which contribute to noncompliance of hand hygiene were also investigated. The results from this study confirmed low hand hygiene compliance among HCWs. Compliance of HCWs for all hand hygiene opportunities was 40% before patient contact and 53% after patient contact. Alcohol hand rub was used in another 4% of hand hygiene opportunities before patient contacts. This study therefore suggests an effective education programme to improve hand hygiene among HCWs.
Source: Medical Technology SA 24 (2010)More Less
Fluence and wavelength of low intensity laser irradiation affect activity and proliferation of human adipose derived stem cells : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 15 –20 (2010)More Less
Background : Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissue. Low Intensity Laser Irradiation (LILI) has been shown to increase stem cell viability, proliferation, migration, and protein expression. This study aimed to compare the effects of two different wavelengths, at different fluencies, on human adult adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs).
Materials and Methods : hADSCs were irradiated at 680 or 830 nm at fluencies of 5, 10 or 15 J/cm2. Cellular responses that were measured included cell morphology, viability and proliferation. Expression of stem cell markers were also determined by immunofluorescence (IF).
Results : Indirect IF confirmed successful stem cell isolation and character with the expression of marker ALCAM (CD166). Morphologically, LILI did not induce any changes to the hADSCs as observed between control cells (0 J/cm2) and irradiated cells. hADSCs irradiated at 680 nm showed no statistical significant differences in viability and proliferation compared to non-irradiated cells at all fluencies, while irradiation at 830 nm showed a significant decrease in both viability and proliferation at 10 and 15 J/cm2 compared to both the non-irradiated and irradiated cells at 680 nm.
Conclusion : Irradiation of hADSCs does not appear to induce differentiation. There is a wavelength as well as a fluence dependent effect, with cells irradiated in the visible range (680 nm) and low fluence (5 J/cm2) responding better than cells irradiated in the infra-red range (830 nm) and higher fluencies (10 and 15 J/cm2).
Antibiotic susceptibility of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis using flow cytometry : peer reviewed short communicationSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 25 –28 (2010)More Less
Increased resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) to antibiotics has emphasized the need for rapid susceptibility testing. BACTEC MGIT 960 system is routinely used for drug susceptibility testing; however, the main drawback is the long incubation time. An alternative flow cytometry-based assay was evaluated for the assessment of drug susceptibility. Thirteen multi-drug resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis cultures were tested against rifampicin (1 μg/ml), isoniazid (0.2 μg/ml), ethambutol (7.5 μg/ml), and ofloxacin (2 μg/ml) using flow cytometry by staining cells with SYTO16 and propidium iodide. Correlation rates of flow cytometry results with BACTEC MGIT 960 system were 28.5% (rifampicin); 15.4% (isoniazid), 61.5% (ethambutol) and 46.1% (ofloxacin). Findings indicate that while flow cytometry for tuberculosis (TB) drug susceptibility may reduce the length of time taken for diagnosis, there was low correlation with BACTEC MGIT 960. The high cost associated with implementation of the technique in diagnostic laboratories is a further disadvantage. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these data.
Leukocyte apoptosis and micronuclei induction in individuals with varying sensitivity to ionising radiation : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 29 –32 (2010)More Less
The identification of radiosensitive individuals using test doses of radiation in vitro of blood samples allows one to manage the detriment of exposure to ionising radiation of members of the public and radiation workers. Current methodologies allow one to quantify radiation-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes (Leukocyte Apoptotic Assay - LAA), an endpoint controlled by molecular pathways as well as micronuclei induction, a cytogenetic type of measurement. In this study, blood from 10 donors was used to analyse radiation-induced apoptosis and micronuclei formations in each instance. Micronuclei formations in isolated lymphocytes were numerated in binucleated cells 72 hours after in vitro radiation exposure and leukocyte apoptosis was measured at 48 hours after in vitro radiation exposure. Variation in response for different individuals was noted and compared using both endpoints. However, no significant relationship could be established between the level of apoptosis and micronuclei frequency induced by a test dose of 2Gy of 6MV X-rays. The fundamental differences in these two endpoints, molecular and cytogenetic respectively, may be a possible reason for this. It is concluded that the measure of radiosensitivity of different individuals is dependent on the endpoint in question.
Fructosamine assays in relationship with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose in diabetic patients and a normal control group : peer reviewed original articleSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 33 –36 (2010)More Less
Diabetes Mellitus is a serious metabolic disorder characterized by a tendency to chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism that arise from a defect in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a common condition, with a prevalence of approximately 4% in the Western world. Early diagnosis is essential as well as the monitoring of glycaemic control. A correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine as indicator of glycaemic control is demonstrated in a group of 20 adult diabetic patients treated with antihyperglycaemics and a group of 20 adult normal individuals. The significance of this study is to determine if both HbA1c and fructosamine assays are necessary for the evaluation of glycaemic control in diabetic patients. Also, a correlation study between two automated instruments using the same fructosamine reagent kit was done, with no significant difference between the two methods. Our conclusion from this study is that only one standard indicator (e.g. only HbA1c) of glycaemic control in diabetic patients is advisable because of many patient to patient and other variables.
The effect of long term swim training on physiological stress levels in the rat : peer reviewed short communicationSource: Medical Technology SA 24, pp 37 –40 (2010)More Less
Swim training is used in rats as an exercise model of cardioprotection, for skeletal muscle studies, for rehabilitation studies in muscle and neural atrophy. However, acute swimming is also used to induce psychological stress in rats in many studies. There is little data on the effect of long term swim training on the stress levels in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sedentary (Sed) or exercised (Ex) groups. Ex groups were exercise trained by swimming for a period of 8 weeks, 5 days per week, starting at 5 minutes per day and incrementally increasing to 60 minutes per day. At the end of the 8 weeks the open field test was performed and blood corticosterone levels were measured by RIA to determine whether the swim training protocol had any effects on stress behaviour and hormone levels of the rats. Neither the behavioural studies nor the corticosterone levels showed any increase above control levels in the groups investigated. Corticosterone levels for Sed (133.3 ± 37.1 ng/ml) and Ex (130.4 ± 30.1 ng/ml) groups were similar, and this was also reflected in the behavioural data collected. In our study, long term swim training did not elicit a physiological stress response in the rat model at the end of the 8 weeks training program.