Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry - Volume 2, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 2, Issue 2, 2012
Source: Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry 2, pp 12 –13 (2012)More Less
Systematic reviews have been recommended as providing the best source of evidence to guide clinical decisions in dentistry. They appraise evidence from trials focused on investigating clinical effects of dental material categories, such as conventional glass-ionomer cements (GIC) or resinmodified GIC. In contrast, the general dental practitioner is introduced to these categories of materials in the form of branded or private product labels that are marketed during dental conventions or through advertisements. Difficulties may arise in recognising material categories that have been subjected to systematic reviews, because of the multitude of product labels on the current market. Thus, the value and relevance of published systematic review evidence concerning the material categories represented by these labels may remain obscure.
Source: Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry 2, pp 14 –20 (2012)More Less
Epistemology is described as the branch of philosophy that concerns itself with questions regarding human knowledge. One particular epistemological question relates to the Object - Subject distinction and asks whether the objective world is subjectively knowable at all. It has been proposed that the real (objective) world and our (subjective) perception of the real world are not the same. Descartes (1641) argued that all that we can know of the real world is tainted by our senses and abilities of understanding. Kant (1998 ) distinguished between the unknowable Ding an sich (German: The thing in itself) and the knowable Erscheinung (German: Phenomenon). Postmodernism contends that the notion of reality is an illusion. Quine (1964) described physical objects as mere cultural posits, and cognitive psychology and neuroscience have presented evidence that sense experience, the 'bedrock of empirical knowledge', is actively edited by human perception. Such 'editing' renders sense experience subjective to the particular observer.
Source: Evidence Based Summaries in Dentistry 2, pp 21 –26 (2012)More Less
Systematic reviews are defined, according to the Cochrane collaboration, as scientific literature reviews aimed at answering clearly formulated questions through use of systematic and explicit methods for identifying, selecting and critically appraising relevant research, and for collecting andanalysing data from the literature included in the review. Through this process, systematic reviews provide a unique opportunity for also identifying gaps in the currently available research on a particular topic and providing recommendations for addressing these. In order for such objective to become part and parcel of the regular systematic review process, it has been suggested that the identification of research gaps should follow a systematic approach that is based on widely accepted elements and provides transparent and reproducible results.