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- Volume 37, Issue 1, 2009
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 37, Issue 1, 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1, 2009
Facing child soldiers, moral issues, and "real soldiering" : anthropological perspectives on professional armed forcesAuthor Eyal Ben-AriSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 1 –24 (2009)More Less
In today's world, adolescents and children sometimes act as combatants who directly participate in hostilities. Yet more often they are deployed as auxiliaries (for example, as lookouts or messengers) or in various support roles (as gardening, road maintenance, delivery of food, cleaning, cooking, conveying goods and providing sexual services) (Boothby and Knudsen 2000). Finally, under certain circumstances, adolescents and children may be used as human shields or for propaganda purposes by government or opposition forces (Boyden and De Berry 2004 : xii; United Nations 2002 : 13). Since the late 1970s, a number of international conventions have been promulgated to limit the use of these young people, but children continue to be deployed in parts of the world and overwhelmingly in sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates as to their numbers vary. Human Rights Watch (2007), a human rights lobby, estimates that there are between 200 000 and 300 000 such youngsters in armed conflicts in over twenty countries.
A diverse society, a representative military? The complexity of managing diversity in the South African Armed ForcesAuthor Lindy HeineckenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 25 –49 (2009)More Less
After providing a brief background as to why issues of diversity management within armed forces have become important internationally, this article outlines the diversity challenges facing the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The first part of the article describes how the racial, language / ethnic and gender profile of the SANDF has changed since 1994 and the tensions this has evoked. The second part provides a brief conceptual framework against which diversity management in the SANDF can be interpreted, whereafter the various diversity management programmes instituted over the years to cultivate a respect for diversity are outlined. It is argued that the predominant emphasis on 'workplace diversity' at the cost of 'valuing diversity' has meant that existing stereotypes and tensions within the ranks have remained, with dire consequences not only for the cohesiveness and effectiveness of the SANDF, but also for civil-military relations.
Portugal and South Africa : close allies or unwilling partners in southern Africa during the Cold War?Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 50 –72 (2009)More Less
The popular perception of the existence of a straightforward alliance between Portugal and South Africa as a result of the growing efficacy of African nationalist groups during the 1960s and early 1970s has never been seriously questioned. However, new research into recently declassified documents from the Portuguese military archives and an extensive overview of the Portuguese and South African diplomatic records from that period provide a different perception of what was certainly a complex interaction between the two countries. It should be noted that, although the two countries viewed their close interaction as mutually beneficial, the existing political differences effectively prevented the creation of an open strategic alliance that would have had a greater deterrence value instead of the secretive tactical approach that was used by both sides to resolve immediate security threats. In addition, South African support for Portugal's long, difficult and costly counterinsurgency effort in three different operational theatres in Africa - Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau - was not really decisive since such support was never provided on a significant scale.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 73 –94 (2009)More Less
This article delineates generic causes to internal conflict and proposes a coalition-forming methodology to allow for power sharing as one avenue of conflict resolution. A suitable framework to study causes to internal conflict should, at least, provide for big bad men versus people under pressure, recent versus historic events and an internal versus an external emphasis that may be employed to understand the rationale for internal conflict. As long as aggrieved parties are not allowed to address their grievances adequately, political conflict will emerge and, if not addressed timely, such conflict may lead to civil war. A conflict resolution mechanism based on the Shapley value is proposed to deal with internal conflict. The allocation of delegates, derived so that all parties have a say commensurate with their support bases, should allow for formal consensus to take place more readily than in cases where a particular party's representation in such a forum dominates the representation of the other parties. An algorithm to determine the number of votes or seats allocated to each of the parties to ensure equitable power sharing is also given. The causal reasons for internal conflict and the proposed methodology to deal with such conflict was presented to prominent South African politicians and political scientists for comment. A favourable response regarding their acceptance of the methodology was elucidated.
Author Gert Van den BerghSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 95 –112 (2009)More Less
In the course of 1900, the second year of the Anglo-Boer War, Potchefstroom was occupied three times by British forces and twice evacuated, all in the space of five months. This article focuses on the circumstances leading to these events, their significance for the effective British occupation of south-western Transvaal and on the effects of the occupations on the civilian population of the town.
The role of military psychology in peacekeeping operations : the South African National Defence Force as an exampleAuthor G.A.J. Van DykSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 113 –135 (2009)More Less
This article is an interdisciplinary publication focusing on the role and development of military psychology in the South African context. Peacekeeping operations and the results of the first and fifth deployment of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are used as background to illustrate the relevance of military psychology in such operations. Peacekeeping operations involve military and often civilian personnel. The nature of peacekeeping operations has become increasingly complex and stressful. It is hypothesised that the stressors that members experience may have a destructive effect on their morale and on the cohesion of the force, and that it could lead to alcohol and drug abuse (Ballone 2000).