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- Volume 37, Issue 2, 2009
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 37, Issue 2, 2009
Volume 37, Issue 2, 2009
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp iii –iv (2009)More Less
The editors of Scientia Militaria are proud to present the second edition of 2009 to its readers. This edition is printed with the financial support of the Netherlands Defence Staff (as reflected on the back cover) and we wish to recognise the support to the journal of Commander Bruno Gerrits, defence attaché at the Royal Netherlands Embassy in South Africa.
Author E.L. Van HarteSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp i –ii (2009)More Less
Scientia Militaria: the South African Journal of Military Studies, initially known as Militaria : Periodical for Military History, was published for the first time in 1969 by the Military Archives, but through negotiations between the faculty at the Military Academy and the Director of the Military Archives the Journal found a new home in the Faculty of Military Science in January 1997. Several committed academics served as editors, including the likes of Deon Visser, Ian van der Waag, Theo Neethling and Francois Vreÿ. They and many others before 1997 sustained the publication of this journal over the last 40 years. To all of those who have contributed to the sustainability of the journal, be it through the writing of articles, the securing of funds, or by serving on the editorial board, we express our greatest appreciation for making sure that Scientia Militaria could appear as a biannual journal.
Author Thomas MandrupSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 1 –24 (2009)More Less
The regional powerhouse, South Africa, has since the introduction of the nonracial democratic dispensation in 1994, played a central and important role in the formation of both the regional and continental security architecture. With the establishment of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 1992, one of the central areas of collaboration for the community was envisioned to be security, understood within a broadened human security framework. Security was therefore from the outset one of the cornerstones of integration in the SADC. It was believed that the formation of a security community would help dismantle the enmities that had plagued regional relations during the apartheid era. For some parties, institutionalisation of relations pointed to a means of stabilising and disseminating a particular order. Such institutions depict the power relations prevailing at the time of their establishment, which, however, can change over time (Cox 1981:136). The integration ambition surrounding security correlated with the ambitions of South Africa, the new democratic government in the regional powerhouse. South Africa and its overall foreign policy ambitions desired the pursuit of peace, democracy and stability for economic growth and development in the region and within South Africa itself.
Author Rialize FerreiraSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 25 –42 (2009)More Less
Owing to the changing nature of international conflict, the 1990s witnessed a growing need for humanitarian peacekeeping operations, especially in Africa. The reluctance of the United Nations to be involved in peacekeeping operations in Africa compelled South Africa to take part in peacekeeping to assist neighbouring conflictridden states. There is, however, a discrepancy between the conceptualisation and application of peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations. This notion is manifest in the changing nature of post-Cold War conflicts and requisite strategies, doctrines and operational procedures to execute these operations. A shift in South African defence policy was necessary to accommodate an expanded mandate to make provision for African peacekeeping missions. These humanitarian missions unfortunately also have unintended, latent consequences for the host populations, which can harm the peace operations as such.
The aim of this article is to investigate traditional peacekeeping shifting to peace-building as a manifest, intended consequence and the way in which unintended, latent consequences of peacekeeping come about.
Author Gerrie SwartSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 43 –62 (2009)More Less
This article will examine and evaluate the potential threat of maritime terrorism in Africa, in particular the threat posed at present off the Somali coast. Africa's porous borders have provided an ideal conduit for the export of terrorism on land, and now its unguarded coastlines are a potential new thoroughfare for maritime terrorists to operate at sea. In Africa, the threat to maritime security and the proliferating threat of ungoverned spaces have lethally combined to spawn the major threat of piracy and now also the potential threat of maritime terrorism off the insecure coastline of Somalia. At the time of writing, the security threats and challenges posed by the rapid proliferation of piracy remains, and have continued to be so throughout 2009. As of recent, maritime experts observe that the waters off the coast of Somalia and the Gulf of Aden have emerged as the most dangerous zones for seafarers.
Author Henri FoucheSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 67 –81 (2009)More Less
In 2008 the highest number of attacks recorded against ships in the world was reported to have taken place off the coast of Africa. These attacks were carried out at greater distances from land, along the east coast of Africa, than ever before. In this article the extent of piracy and armed robbery against ships in the African context and underlying causes of piracy and armed robbery against ships off the coast of East Africa will be presented. The objective is to analyse incidents and the land and sea based causes in East Africa to account for the shift in strategy from attacking ships in territorial waters to attacking ships on the high seas. A secondary aim is to determine, in view of the shifting background to the attacks, the responsibilities of navies and other role players in the process of countering such attacks. The article suggests that states need to review national legislation related to maritime security and that all state role players in the maritime domain need to cooperate more efficiently.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 82 –106 (2009)More Less
The South African Military Academy was established in 1950 as a branch of the SA Military College, under the academic auspices of the University of Pretoria. A mere three years later, in 1953, the Union Defence Force decided to relocate the Academy to Saldanha and to establish it as an independent military unit under the wings of Stellenbosch University. The relocation process took place during 1955 / 1956, shortly after construction of the Academy buildings at Saldanha had started. As a result, Stellenbosch University agreed to accommodate the Academy staff and students on the mother campus until the facilities at Saldanha were completed. However, not all civilian students welcomed the military students on the Matie campus, which culminated in the so-called 'Battle of Wilgenhof' in 1957. This article investigates the origins, extent, outcome and consequences of the conflict between military and civilian students on the campus of Stellenbosch University in the mid-1950s. It contends that the conflict was rooted in cultural rather than political differences, that the antagonism towards the military students was in essence restricted to the residents of Wilgenhof and that the 'Battle of Wilgenhof' had no lasting impact on the interaction between military and civilian students at Stellenbosch University.
The significance of the Battle for Cuito Cuanavale : long-term foresight of the current strategic landscapeAuthor Andreas VelthuizenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 107 –123 (2009)More Less
This article deals with the long-term outcomes of the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale in Angola (1987-1988) and the effect of the outcomes on the current strategic landscape in Southern Africa. The crux of the article is to learn about the value of long-term foresight for strategising in an international context. After a short discussion of the research methodology, the desired long-term outcomes, as perceived by the major roleplayers before the battle, will be described and explained. For the purpose of elucidation, a description is included of the events preceding the battle and the course of the battle itself. Finally, the long-term outcomes within the context of the current strategic landscape in Southern Africa will be described and explained. The article concludes with recommendations on the value of long-term strategic foresight and the importance to maintain strategic instruments, including military force, to ensure that the foreseen outcomes become reality.
Beyond the Border War : new pespectives on Southern Africa's Late Cold War Conflicts, G. Baines, & P. Vale (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Ian LiebenbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 124 –130 (2009)More Less
Namibia became independent after decades of struggle when the apartheid government accepted UN Resolution 435. In Windhoek the flag of the occupier finally made way for one heralding a rising sun. Peace returned to Namibia and Namibia to the Namibians. South Africa had withdrawn from Angola after years of intimate involvement. Jonas Savimbi, leader of the rebel movement Unita and a former proxy of South Africa, continued the civil war for another dozen years. The landmines remained. In many towns and villages in Angola the maimed and the wounded are still to be seen.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 131 –134 (2009)More Less
Richard Holmes presents some insight into the events following the controversial Allied invasion of Iraq during early 2003. The events surrounding the insurgency after the premature declaration of victory in May 2003 by the former US President George W Bush forms the backdrop to the publication. At the heart of the publication reside the experiences of one particular British unit, the 1st Battalion, The Princess of Wales Royal Regiment (1 PWRR), which deployed to Iraq during April 2004.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 37, pp 135 –139 (2009)More Less
Vladimir Shubin is the Deputy Director of the Institute for African Studies in the Russian Academy of Sciences and a former officer in the Soviet armed forces, and subsequently, a member (eventually secretary) of the Soviet Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee and desk officer (eventually head) of the African Section of the Communist Party of the USSR. In the latter two capacities he became intensely involved in supporting Southern African liberation movements on behalf of the USSR.