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- Volume 38, Issue 1, 2010
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 38, Issue 1, 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1, 2010
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp i –iii (2010)More Less
The editors of Scientia Militaria are proud to present the first edition of 2010. The new editors took over from Francois Vreÿ and a distinguished editorial team. Scientia Militaria was privileged to have had a succession of highly qualified and committed editors over the past decades. It is no small order to step into their shoes. To our benefit, many of the early members are still around, playing an active role; others are present as critical soundboards and sources of institutional memory and knowledge. As editorial collective, we intend to keep Scientia Militaria as an accredited journal on a high standard with contents of interest to military scientists, military and strategic theorists, informed practitioners and civil society actors alike.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 1 –24 (2010)More Less
One reason for the persistence and protracted nature of conflict on the African continent is the phenomenon of war economies. These have transformed the nature of war itself where the object is not at neutralizing an enemy but to institutionalize violence at a profitable level of intensity. Transforming war economies into peace economies constitute a unique challenge to post-conflict reconstruction strategies on the African continent. This article explores these challenges and critically examines whether the African Union (AU) and New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) post-conflict reconstruction strategies meets these challenges. The article concludes with some recommendations to policy-makers in order to ensure that this transition from war to peace economies does indeed take place in order to ensure a more peaceful continent.
Author Glen SegellSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 25 –44 (2010)More Less
The first decade of the new millennium saw the European Union deploy nine security missions to the African continent, quoting the European Security and Defence Policy. Unlike the numerous United Nations security missions that European states had previously contributed to, these were part of a grand strategy designed to link the African Union and the European Union in a process of transregionalism defined as a unique organisational infrastructure (joint secretariat for research, policy planning, preparation and coordination of meetings and implementation of decisions). The rationale being that security and its associated peace and stability are the basis for sustainable development in other areas. This article follows the development of the trans-regionalism detailing the security missions.
Author Rialize FerreiraSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 45 –67 (2010)More Less
Irregular wars have erupted in African states since colonial independence from Western European countries in the 1960s. The end of the Cold War in 1989 and the changing nature of international politics did not bring about political stability in African states either. These intrastate wars were by-products of historic disputes kept hidden during the Cold War. When the ideological confrontation ended, they surfaced again. Intrastate wars and irregular warfare are not new phenomena on the African continent and led to the collapse of state institutions in countries such as Liberia, Somalia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda, Sudan and Burundi. Rather than addressing African animosities, conflict continues unabated. The article aims to investigate why irregular (or asymmetric) warfare is utilised in African conflicts where rebel and ethnic groups retain residual military capacity to deploy against weak central governments if their socio-economic demands are not met in the emerging states. The article combines "grievance" and "greed" models to explain the motivations for conflict, while the conceptualisation and utilisation of asymmetric warfare approaches in the African context of irregular war are questioned. Democratic values such as freedom, justice, equality and human dignity are lacking in conflict-ridden societies where unequal forces compete for political and economic control or control over scarce resources. Peacekeeping operations cannot succeed unless the basis for equitable participation in, and the sharing of wealth and power is established in African societies.
Author Leopold ScholtzSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 68 –98 (2010)More Less
Ever since 1988, a war of words has been waged about the question who won the so-called Battle of Cuito Cuanavale - the SADF, or the Cuban and Angola forces. A lot depends, of course, on what the South Africans' strategic and operational objectives were, and whether they reached these or not. On a somewhat lower level, the debate has centred on the question whether the SADF wanted to occupy Cuito Cuanavale. If they did, it becomes easier to argue that South Africa was dealt a heavy reverse there; if not, such an argument becomes more difficult to sustain. In this article, South Africa's strategic and operational objectives are analysed, based on archival sources. The basic conclusions are that the South African government was realistic enough to see that it could not replace the MPLA with UNITA by force, although it was hoped this might happen through elections. As far as Cuito Cuanavale is concerned, the sources are unequivocal : Although the occupation of the town was indeed discussed, it was never seriously considered. The objective was simply to drive FAPLA over the Cuito River, to prepare the riverbank as a defensive line, to turn it over to UNITA and then to pull back. By far most of the South Africans' objectives were reached.
Author Tim StapletonSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 99 –114 (2010)More Less
During the early and mid-twentieth century, the security forces of colonial Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a paramilitary occupation force into a professional law enforcement organisation, extra-territorial recruits were phased out in favour of local men fluent in local languages with western-style education. Despite this, African police from other territories continued to have a disproportionate impact on the force as many became longserving and accomplished members, who dominated the paramilitary African Police Platoon and served as drill instructors for all recruits. During the First World War, most African soldiers in the Rhodesia Native Regiment (RNR) were migrant workers recruited directly from Southern Rhodesia's mines. During the Second World War, just under half of the Rhodesian African Rifles (RAR) originated from other territories. The recruiting of extra-territorial African soldiers declined further in the 1950s and early 1960s as military conditions of service in their respective homes improved, the Masvingo-Gutu area became a dependable source of local recruits and eventually newly independent black-ruled states came into conflict with white-ruled Rhodesia.
Author Willem Le RouxSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 115 –133 (2010)More Less
Augmented reality is not completely new technology, but rather an interesting combination of existing technologies, facilitated by the rapid progress made on ultra-portable devices such as smart cellular telephones. It has the potential to enhance the situation awareness of military operators. This study identifies possible uses of augmented reality in command and control applications with specific attention to situation awareness in the South African context. Applications across the different command and control functions, as well as at the different levels of military operations are considered. The article concludes with some concept definitions for augmented reality applications.
Author Gert Van Der WesthuizenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 134 –135 (2010)More Less
Books by ex-conscripts detailing their experiences were few and far between in the era of the Border War while more than 500 000 white males were called up for what was described as "national service". While books like these are not exactly flooding the shelves of bookstores, they roll of the presses more regularly now. These works mostly deal with ex-conscript's that actively experienced the war in Namibia and Angola. Stand at ease is different : there is no "cordite and conflict".
Author Abel EsterhuyseSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 136 –139 (2010)More Less
With the publication of Seapower : A Guide for the Twenty-First Century Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides essential reading for those interested in the role of seapower in the twenty-first century. Till notes in the preface to the second edition of the book (p. xv) that he specifically aimed at providing a broader international context for the discussion of the role of navies. The naval policies of China, Japan, India and the United States are used as case studies of general naval developments around the world. In addition, the analysis highlights the "... post-modern preoccupations of today's navies" (p. xvii) including inter alia the maintenance of good order at sea, coalition operations, and multilateral terrorism. The central hypothesis of the book is rooted in the notion that the sea is central to the prosperity and security of all nations, and even more so since the emergence of an increasingly globalised world trading system. Till argues in Seapower that the fate of nations is closely link to the sea as a source of resources and as a means of transportation, information exchange and strategic domination in all human development.
Author Gerhard Van ZylSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 140 –142 (2010)More Less
The relevance of a book review of a fictional account of the life story of a child soldier in Sierra Leone for a journal such as Scientia Militaria is twofold : a) Truth (reality) remains stranger (more horrific) than fiction; b) Based on national foreign policy, the truth (realities) of Sierra Leone is by continental affiliation a South African reality, and by micro-affiliation an SANDF reality. This book challenges contemporary society, which is continuously bombarded and often jaded by faceless or nameless graphic news scenes. Those portions of society that remain blinded by prejudice and self-centred socio-political gaze to the severity of these scenes, are now confronted with a face and a name : Ishmael Beah.