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- Volume 38, Issue 2, 2010
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 38, Issue 2, 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2, 2010
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp i –iii (2010)More Less
Editors of academic journals are confronted with choices and trade-offs. A wide variety of factors are influencing the choice of articles and themes for a particular edition. Scientia Militaria, the South African Journal for Military Studies, is a journal with a particular focus and covers a wide spectrum of military-related topics. As an academic discipline, Military Science, though, is characterised by its interdisciplinary nature. This interdisciplinary nature is once again demonstrated through the variety of articles in this particular edition.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 1 –21 (2010)More Less
During the apartheid era, the South African military maintained a dual policy on homosexuality - prohibited among members of the permanent force, homosexuality was officially tolerated among conscripts. When the regime fell, the new government committed itself to human rights considerations, and after the South African Constitution adopted a provision of non-discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in 1996, the South African military followed suit. In 1998, the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) implemented the Policy on Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action that declared that there would no longer be discrimination against gays and lesbians. This article draws together military and government documents, secondary research, press coverage and interviews with individuals with knowledge on this topic to assess the effects of this policy change. The evidence suggests that the integration of gay and lesbian personnel has not had a negative impact on recruitment and retention, morale, unit cohesion or operational effectiveness in the SANDF.
Author Nyameka MankayiSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 22 –43 (2010)More Less
Generally, the military and masculinity are confirmed as harmonious and mutual. For many countries, military service assumes the status of initiation into manhood. In South Africa, for example, in the past, young white men were legally obliged to do military service. This emphasises the importance of focusing on white masculinities within the South African military in this article. Strong parallels with 10 African male soldiers who also underscored hegemonic masculinity are drawn. The construction of masculinity of young male soldiers is discussed historically and in the present context. Transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with soldiers drawn from a total of 14 participants were qualitatively analysed and are presented to illustrate the themes that emerged in the interviews. The findings suggest that the military encompasses masculine characteristics and defines soldiering as an embodiment of traditional male sex practices. This article concludes that military context and culture exaggerate and emphasise hegemonic masculinity and heterosexuality for male soldiers.
Author William DeanSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 44 –61 (2010)More Less
The traditional images of the French Army in World War I on the Western Front from Cyril Falls's to Marc Ferro's surveys (both entitled The Great War 1914-1918) have been that of the grizzled yet determined French peasant or worker - the poilu. It is clear from recent research that this is far from accurate and that the French forces were far more heterogeneous than portrayed by previous images. Men were called from all over the French empire to serve in the frontline and in logistics units. Virtually every part of the French Empire responded, although somewhat grudgingly, even including Tahiti, which provided a Bataillon Pacifique. Bringing men to a foreign land and culture to fight in a new type of horrific war was quite a strain on these 600 000 soldiers. The bulk of these soldiers were drawn from North and West Africa, with smaller numbers coming from Madagascar, Indochina and Equatorial Africa. This article is an attempt at giving an impressionistic glimpse of this subject describing colonial morale both at the frontlines and behind the lines, seeing how they compare to their metropole comrades and trying to gain an understanding of the vie quotiedienne of the colonial soldier.
Civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities : response to the mudslide in southern Leyte, PhilippinesSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 62 –88 (2010)More Less
This article examines engagements between civilian actors, the Philippine security forces and the US military during disaster response operations. The Philippine disaster framework recognises the military's role in disaster relief and has existing mechanisms for accepting international assistance and procedures for military-to-military cooperation in this task. The local authorities accord the military a central role in the disaster operations, contrary to notions of it being the 'last resort'. Tasking and coordination proceeded separately along civilian versus military lines, with limited interface between the two groups. The army reservists had greater linkages with civilian actors than did the army regulars, who dealt exclusively with the foreign teams. The US military's activities were confined to search and rescue and to providing critical logistics, which the Philippines actors lacked.
Author Theo NeethlingSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 89 –108 (2010)More Less
The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories and practical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namely the significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global issues and politics. The phenomenon of maritime piracy along Africa's coastal areas is indeed of great strategic and political-economic interest - specifically since globalisation and maritime trade show a close interface. This article examines the similarities and differences relating to the phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts of Africa from a Political Science perspective by assessing, interpreting and appraising the phenomenon, and ascribing meaning to recent events and developments. It also explains the current insecurity off the west and east African coasts and closes with a brief comparison between the two regions under review. It concludes with the point that most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack or failure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order at sea. Thus the required good order at sea should be viewed as a function of how states, such as Somalia and Nigeria, exercise their jurisdiction at sea to secure busy sea lanes and also to protect the safe harvesting and extraction of resources.
The South African Navy and its predecessors, 1910-2010 : a century of interaction with Commonwealth naviesAuthor Andre WesselsSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 109 –130 (2010)More Less
In this article, the history of the South African Navy (SAN) and its predecessors is reviewed, as well as the interaction with other Commonwealth navies during the years 1910 to 2010. Although the Union Defence Forces were established in 1912, the Union only acquired its first naval force in 1922, when the South African Naval Service (SANS) was formed. In the meantime, the country's naval defence was conducted by the Royal Navy (RN). During World War I, 164 members of the South African Division of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve served in the RN. The SANS's three small ships were withdrawn from service in 1933 to 1934, and when World War II broke out, the country's naval forces had to be built up from scratch - but soon played an important role in patrolling the Cape sea route (and also saw action in the Mediterranean). After the war, South Africa's naval forces were rationalised, but - in the context of the Cold War and the Soviet threat to the Cape sea route - the SAN then gradually grew in size and importance, albeit that it was (and today still is) small in comparison to major Commonwealth navies. In 1957, the SAN acquired the RN's Simon's Town Naval Base. Many exercises were held with the RN and other navies, but gradually South Africa became more isolated internationally because of the National Party government's racially-based policy of apartheid. In due course, this impacted negatively on the SAN and its interaction with other navies. In 1975, the Simon's Town Agreement was abrogated and in 1977, the United Nations imposed a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa. In the meantime, the Republic of South Africa (RSA) became embroiled in the Namibian War of Independence (1966-1989) - a war that spilled over into Angola. The SAN played a small, albeit important, role in the war, but the conflict affected the navy negatively. The advent of the truly democratic RSA in 1994 opened new opportunities for the SAN, and since then, the SAN has undertaken many flag-showing cruises to several Commonwealth and other countries, while many foreign warships, including from Commonwealth navies, have visited the RSA and exercised with the SAN.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 131 –149 (2010)More Less
Review articles allow books to speak, however subjective such articles may be. Reviewers, participants and observers share their reading of the written work or discourse as interpreted by human beings within time and context. If Anthony Giddens is correct that segmental interests lie deeply embedded in structures of signification and if Feuer is to the point in his argument "that in ideology words are measured for their fire-power, not the truth they hold", then any attempt to make sense of what happened where, when and how and with what consequences during the Border War/Bush War and its outcomes in Angola will be no easy matter for historians and social scientists. It is understandable that for the observer and participant alike it seems that "truth" and "fact" became obscured by the drifting smoke and dust of past ideological and military struggles. Include the static views then held, and none closer do we come to understanding this war in all its complexity.
Author H.A.P. SmitSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 150 –151 (2010)More Less
There has always been a long-standing relationship between Geography and the military. In the book Military Geography: from Peace to War, Military Geography is defined as the "application of geographic information, tools and techniques to military problems". In the international arena, Military Geography enjoys recognition as a formal sub-discipline with its own speciality group within the Association of American Geographers. Military Geography: from Peace to War is a welcome addition to a rather sparse literature collection of this applied sub-discipline of Geography.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 152 –158 (2010)More Less
This 11th edition of Why nations go to war analyses ten case studies covering major international wars. The particular focus of each of the case studies turns upon the personalities of political and military leaders. Stoessinger emphasises that people go to war or precipitate wars. War is not some faceless entity that merely unfolds in some inexplicable way. In a critical stance towards attempts to explain war, the author holds that personalities often do not receive their due recognition in publications on war. Decisions by leaders to go to war or leadership decisions that result in warlike acts causing societies or vulnerable sections of society to suffer, receive attention in this updated edition of Why nations go to war. It is in the particular focus on people (the leaders who decide to go to war) where Stoessinger seeks for " ... common truths about war in our time".
Author Cadene NabbieSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 38, pp 159 –161 (2010)More Less
Robert Michael Citino is an American history professor, scholar and author specialising in German military history. This extensive work on German military history and the credentials of the author make the book a credible source of information. The book seems biased in depicting the German military as the best but if one is acquainted with military history, it is a bias that could be justified.