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- Volume 39, Issue 1, 2011
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 39, Issue 1, 2011
Volume 39, Issue 1, 2011
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp i –iii (2011)More Less
Craig A. Snyder, in a book titled Contemporary Security and Strategy, noted that the broad idea of security provides strategic studies with institutional status and political legitimacy. Yet, the military core endows strategic studies, as a scholarly discipline, with intellectual coherence. This edition of Scientia Militaria, the South African Journal of Military Studies, reflects this reality with a very broad range of articles - from sexual behaviour and poetry to military intervention. Yet, the underlying commonality is an emphasis on military issues.
Author Carol AllaisSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 1 –15 (2011)More Less
United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, damages the image and credibility of a peacekeeping operation. Victims of sexual exploitation and abuse suffer sever physical and psychological consequences.The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse must take cognisance of the way in which social identities are shaped in response to the life challenges posed by the relevant social and material world in which peacekeepers find themselves.
Author Eugene J. PalkaSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 16 –32 (2011)More Less
For nearly two millennia, the Kurds have inhabited a mountainous region known as Kurdistan, a territory including parts of Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Within Iraq, Kurds are the second largest ethnic group, comprising 15-20% of the population and constituting the majority of citizens in the provinces of Dohuk, Irbil and Sulaymaniyah. Historic rivalries between Iraqi Kurds and Arabs contribute to current social and political unrest, and pose an even greater challenge to long-term stability in the country. One of the most volatile issues fuelling Kurd-Arab tensions concerns the "Green Line", which on various maps separates Iraq's Kurdish and Arab populations. Initially established by Saddam Hussein in 1991, the ambiguous boundary has shifted north during Arabisation schemes and south as a result of Kurdish settlement and encroachment. More recently, on 19 March 2003, the Green Line was defined as the area controlled by the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) and recognised by the Iraqi Transitional Government when it passed the Transitional Administrative Law (TAL) in 2004. Although the Iraqi Constitution recognises Kurdistan as a federal region, the precise boundary remains contentious. At stake are the historical ties to the territory along the Green Line, the associated oil reserves, and the status of the symbolic city of Kirkuk. Resolution of the disputed territories along the Green Line, the associated revenue sharing of the oil wealth, and the fate of Kirkuk, constitute a single, complex, multifaceted issue that will have a decisive impact on the future stability, if not integrity, of Iraq.
Author Mashudu Godfrey RamuhalaSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 33 –55 (2011)More Less
Military intervention remains controversial both when it happens and when it fails to happen. Since the end of the Cold War, military intervention has attracted much scholarly interest, and it was demonstrated that several instances of the use of force or the threat to use force without Security Council endorsement were acceptable and necessary. Matters of national sovereignty remain the fundamental principle on which the international order was founded since the Treaty of Westphalia. Territorial integrity of states and non-interference in their domestic affair, continue to be the foundation of international law, codified by the United Nations Charter, and one of the international community's decisive factors in choosing between intervention and non-intervention. Nevertheless, since the end of the Cold War, matters of sovereignty and non-interference have been challenged by the emergent human rights discourse amidst genocide and war crimes. The aim of this article is to explain the extent to which military intervention in Africa has evolved since the end of the Cold War in terms of theory, practice and the way military intervention unfolded upon the African continent. This will be achieved by focusing on both successful and unsuccessful cases of military intervention in Africa. The unsuccessful cases include Somalia in 1992, Rwanda in 1994 and Darfur in 2003 on the one hand, and the successful cases being Sierra Leone in 2000 and the Comoros in 2008 on the other. While the unsuccessful cases attracted much scholarly attention and controversy, given their prolonged nature and difficulty in terms of conclusion, successful cases were short in terms of time and attracted little scholarly attention and controversy.
Author Andre Van Der BijlSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 56 –84 (2011)More Less
From the 1970s to the early 1990s, "struggle poetry" served to define elements of the struggle against apartheid. In contrast to struggle literature, which was open and clearly focussed, pro-apartheid literature was not produced in abundance and, when it appeared, was shrouded in social discourse, including historical analysis, terminology, the articulation of specific viewpoints, humour and a sense of duty. One of the longest-lasting windows into apartheid military propaganda was Peter Badcock's Images of war (1981), a compilation of pencil sketches and short poetic works that used simple blank verse and images of racial diversity, romance and implied tradition. This article presents a discourse analysis of the above-mentioned publication, using both Foucault-infused thoughts and a critical discourse analysis methodology developed by Fairclough. It provides insight into how the apparatus of a state can gain popular support for sociologically unacceptable practices. Understanding the latter contributes to an understanding of power relations and ideological processes that underlie text and rhetoric.
Author Lieneke Eloff de VisserSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 85 –100 (2011)More Less
During the Namibian border war, South African counterinsurgency doctrine acknowledged the importance of securing the allegiance and cooperation of the population. This article demonstrates that, in the operational zone, the responsibility of winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian people largely fell to the SADF (South African Defence Force). Although the SADF dedicated considerable resources to this task, these efforts were often at cross-purposes with those of institutions in the political, police and administrative domains. In addition, there was a lack of unity and purpose within the SADF. This article argues that lack of unity between and within the different domains undermined the effort at winning the hearts and minds of the Namibian population, and must at least partly have contributed to SWAPO's victory in the 1989 elections.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 101 –114 (2011)More Less
The purpose of this article is to introduce an Integrated Service Excellence Model (ISEM) for empowering the leadership core of the capital-intensive military test and evaluation facilities to provide strategic military test and evaluation services and to continuously improve service excellence by ensuring that all activities necessary to design, develop and implement a test and evaluation service are effective and efficient. In order to develop the ISEM, various management tools and productivity and quality models were identified and tested through an empirical study conducted amongst the various test and evaluation facilities' leadership core. Solutions to financial, human resource and environmental challenges as well as quality standards were built into the ISEM. Governance principles and leadership perceptions and recommendations further contributed to the development of the ISEM.
Author Leopold ScholtzSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 115 –137 (2011)More Less
The purpose of this article is to examine the standard of research about the so-called Battle of Cuito Cuanavale. After examining what objectivity for the academic researcher should mean, two categories of researchers are looked at. The first is called the "non-researchers". They are those who do no or virtually no real research into the events at Cuito Cuanavale, but uncritically copy what politicians and politically correct academics have to say about the subject. The focus also falls on one particular historian, Italian-American Professor Piero Gleijeses. On the basis of several articles (his book about Cuba's role in Africa until 1976 is judged to be good), the conclusion is that his evident admiration for Cuba and its dictator, President Fidel Castro, and his revulsion at apartheid South Africa brings about a one-sided and distorted picture of what went on at Cuito Cuanavale and the Border War in general. The last category is the "serious researchers", whose work is based on good research. Although their work displays certain gaps in the sense that they had no access to Cuban or Angolan sources, they generally are much more reliable in their facts than the "non-researchers" and Professor Gleijeses.
Author H.A.P. SmitSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 138 –139 (2011)More Less
Although the relationship between Geography and the military is long-standing and well researched, books dealing with this applied sub-discipline of geography exclusively remain rare. As such, the International handbook Military Geography is both a welcome addition to a rather sparse collection of Military Geography literature, as well as a uniquely European perspective to an otherwise American-dominated body of literature.
Author Ian LiebenbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 140 –142 (2011)More Less
Author E.T. BarnardSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 143 –144 (2011)More Less
James Ngculu was one of those young South Africans who had chosen to dedicate their lives to the battle against apartheid. The 1976 uprising in Soweto motivated him to join Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). During his years in exile, he occupied a variety of posts within the MK, which varied from Camp Politics Instructor, to Camp Commissar. He was also one of the founding members of the MK Military Intelligence wing, which played an important role in the struggle against apartheid. He also occupied an array of important governmental posts after the ANC's electoral victory in 1994. The honour to serve is a memoir of his time as a freedom fighter in the MK.