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- Volume 39, Issue 2, 2011
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 39, Issue 2, 2011
Volume 39, Issue 2, 2011
Author Andre WesselsSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 1 –24 (2011)More Less
In this article, a review of the guerrilla (i.e. fourth main) phase of the Anglo-Boer War of 1899 to 1902 is provided; a phase that stretched from March 1900 until May 1902. It is indicated how and why the war developed from a (semi-) conventional conflict to a full-scale guerrilla war, and what the consequences of those developments were. The way in which the Boers applied guerrilla tactics at, for example, the battles of Sannaspos, Bakenlaagte, Groenkop, Yzerspruit and Tweebosch/De Klipdrift, are briefly analysed, with special reference to the role played by prominent Boer guerrilla commanders such as Generals Christiaan de Wet, Koos de la Rey and Louis Botha. The British counter-guerrilla strategy is also analysed, with special reference to the scorched-earth policy, internment camps, "psychological warfare", mobile columns, information/intelligence, blockhouses, armoured trains and drivers. The available sources that shed light on the guerrilla phase of the war will be briefly discussed, and this controversial phase of the war will be placed in the broader context of the history of twentieth-century South Africa.
Author Johan WassermannSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 25 –51 (2011)More Less
The low intensity warfare in the borderlands of the Transvaal and Zululand during the Anglo-Boer War is, despite lasting for the duration of the war, a neglected area in the historiography of the conflict. This article, which employs the conceptual framework of borderlands, attempts to address this. In doing so, the conflict, the way it transcended the geography of the region and the way it impacted on all the inhabitants of the area, are investigated. In the process, the nature of the conflict, which for the most part centred on the raiding of livestock in addition to attacks and raids on homesteads, farms, isolated shops and outlying military and government posts, is laid bare. The final outcome of the war in this area was the dismantling of the borderlands of the Transvaal and Zululand in favour of the Colony of Natal.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 52 –75 (2011)More Less
This article illustrates the relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure protection. Analogies of information warfare models to those of information security and information systems were used to deconstruct the models into their fundamental components and this will be discussed. The models were applied to critical infrastructures to illustrate the relevance to critical infrastructure protection. By considering the interdependencies of the critical infrastructure sectors, it will be shown how all critical infrastructures can be modelled as information infrastructures when considering information warfare attacks.
Author John StupartSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 76 –98 (2011)More Less
Somalia has suffered a rupture. Following the failed United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) interventions to stabilise the failed state, few state leaders or military organisations consider serious intervention. The research on which this article is based, sought to provide a theoretical foundation for reintervention into Somalia using "just-war" theory, particularly that of jus ad bellum. By highlighting how intervention is just, feasible and legitimate when employed through the right channels and within the right strategic framework, this article reports on ways in which the hypothetical stabilisation of Somalia can be achieved realistically, should the political will ever emerge. The lessons of UNOSOM are not necessarily valid anymore, and as such the research reported here examined the problem of Somalia on the basis that intervention need not result in another Blackhawk Down.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 99 –116 (2011)More Less
The modern battlefield is a fast-paced, information-rich environment, where discovery of intent, situation awareness and the rapid evolution of concepts of operation and doctrine are critical success factors. A combination of the techniques investigated and tested in this work, together with other techniques in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and modern computational techniques, may hold the key to relieving the burden of the decision-maker and aiding in better decision-making under pressure. The techniques investigated in this article were two methods from the machine-learning subfield of reinforcement learning (RL), namely a Monte Carlo (MC) control algorithm with exploring starts (MCES), and an off-policy temporal-difference (TD) learning-control algorithm, Q-learning. These techniques were applied to a simplified version of the weapon assignment (WA) problem in air defence. The MCES control algorithm yielded promising results when searching for an optimal shooting order. A greedy approach was taken in the Q-learning algorithm, but experimentation showed that the MCES-control algorithm still performed significantly better than the Q-learning algorithm, even though it was slower.
Author Lawrence Craig BailieSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 117 –140 (2011)More Less
Iraq, following the 2003 US invasion, was more than just a site of physical conflict; it was also an event on the ground that encompassed a contest around classification. The reason for this contest - one that goes beyond the political considerations during that time - is the migration of the term "civil war". Using social constructivism as a theoretical lens of inquiry, sense is made of this migration. The empirical evidence that accompanies this theoretical work is drawn from the debate over the conflict in Iraq. This debate is used as a means by which to bring the contestation over the notion of "civil war" to the fore and reveal the migration of the term.
Modern war and the utility of force : challenges, methods and strategy, Jan Angstrom and Isabelle Duyvesteyn (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Gerhard LouwSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 141 –148 (2011)More Less
The utility of military force in general, and that of military forces in particular, has been the subject of much debate since the end of the Cold War in 1989. At the same time, as the threat and incidence of state-on-state war receded, along with its associated conventional force strategies, structures and doctrine, governments were increasingly calling upon their armed forces to carry out missions that they were not trained and equipped for. These tasks included peace support, state-building, humanitarian aid, counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism, all of which engendered a plethora of arguments pointing to a new paradigm of war.
A century of postgraduate Anglo-Boer war (1899 - 1902) studies : master's and doctoral studies completed at universities in South Africa, in English-speaking countries and on the European continent (1908 - 2008), André Wessels : book reviewAuthor Deon VisserSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 149 –151 (2011)More Less
André Wessels, a professor of history at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein, South Africa, and currently also a Visiting Fellow in the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of New South Wales, at the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra, is an established Anglo-Boer War historian. In addition to numerous publications on other topics, he has published a wealth of articles and books on the Anglo-Boer War. The latter include Lord Roberts and the War in South Africa (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2000) and Lord Kitchener and the War in South Africa (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2006).
Author Ian LiebenbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 152 –159 (2011)More Less
It is seldom that one comes across a work where history-writing and qualitative research meet succinctly. Add to this an author who communicates crisply and relates real-life narratives that capture and hold the reader's attention. This is such a work. The author read history but did more than that. Since 1960, Axell has interviewed dozens of veterans of all genders, from soldiers to marshals, who took part in the battles on the Eastern Front. Through his reading of history, close acquaintanceship with the Soviet Union and Russian-speaking society, and multiple interviews, Axell brings the experience of the individual and group up close and personal.
The evolution of strategy : thinking war from antiquity to the present, Beatrice Heuser : book reviewAuthor Francois VreySource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 39, pp 160 –163 (2011)More Less
The Evolution of Strategy: Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present is another welcome addition to the field of War Studies with its particular focus on strategy. The publication adds to a growing body of literature that explores new historical sources to anchor the theoretical departure of the work further, and attends to the emergent dilemmas of the future role(s) of the armed forces. At a time when critical stances about the utility of armed forces seem to have entered a growth period, The Evolution of Strategy contributes several well-argued perspectives to acknowledge and comment on questions related to the utility of armed coercion in contemporary times.