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- Volume 40, Issue 1, 2012
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 40, Issue 1, 2012
Volume 40, Issue 1, 2012
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp i –iii (2012)More Less
Numerous challenges confront armed forces at present, and in a complex world, they need to understand the nature of these challenges. The challenges are in many cases related either to threats emanating from the foreign policy environment or to vulnerabilities from the domestic political environment. The understanding of the nature of these threats is a key factor in helping armed forces to organise, equip and train themselves in order to deal with these issues. Most of the debates about armed force and the use thereof, thus, focus on understanding what ought to be done and how it should be done. Linking these two questions to the availability of resources and the defence budget in particular, is the concentrated essence of military science and strategy. The articles in this edition of Scientia Militaria - South African Journal of Military Studies reflect the need for armed forces to understand what ought to be done and how it should be done. In addition, it touches on the effect of these two factors on the institutional nature of armed forces.
Author Martijn KitzenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 1 –24 (2012)More Less
Contemporary campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan once again have demonstrated that conventional armies experience many problems in adapting to counterinsurgency operations. This article seeks an explanation for those problems by exploring the conceptual background of both Western-style conventional armies and counterinsurgency. In essence, Western military culture is about fighting large-scale decisive battles with armies of other states. This contrasts strongly with counterinsurgency, which is about outbidding the insurgents for the favour of the people with a minimised use of force. The article analyses the further consequences of this conceptual clash between Western military culture and counterinsurgency in the reality of counterinsurgency warfare. It is explained that the contrast between both concepts leads to an ambiguous reality in which soldiers are aware of the specifics of counterinsurgency theory, but refer back to Western military culture for fighting counterinsurgency campaigns.
The Afrikander Volunteer Corps and the participation of Afrikaners in conflicts in Rhodesia, 1893-1897Author Gustav HendrichSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 25 –48 (2012)More Less
During the last decade of the nineteenth century, British colonisation in Southern Africa, in particular in Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) had coincided with uneasy relations with the native black population. Partly because of continuing disillusionment over stringent policy regarding native livestock, hostilities between the colonial officials and Matabele and Mashona tribal groups resulted in devastating wars. Within these warring circumstances, Afrikaner settlers who had immigrated to Rhodesia since 1891 - mostly in search of better living opportunities - subsequently found themselves amidst the crossfire of these conflicts. Though subjugated to British colonial authority, the Afrikaner minority were regarded by native blacks as collaborators in maintaining white military and political power in Rhodesia.
Consequently, the mere safety of Afrikaners were threatened by sporadic military attacks and skirmishes during the Anglo-Matabele war of 1893, and most of all, for the duration of the Matabele and Mashona rebellions of 1896 to 1897. During the Matabele rebellion, an Afrikander Volunteer Corps (known as the Afrikaner Korps) was established as a military unit, which provided substantial support in two decisive battles. This article seeks to address the role and history of the Afrikander Volunteer Corps, as well as the involvement of ordinary Afrikaners in the turbulent colonial wars in early Rhodesia.
Author Evert JordaanSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 49 –70 (2012)More Less
Special Operations Forces (SOF) have received significant emphasis over the last decade, as armed forces require highly trained and rapid deployable forces to deal with asymmetric threats. The South African (SA) Army identified the need for an SOF capability in its long-term strategy, and airborne forces form an important component in its envisioned Contingency Brigade. This article examines the utility of contemporary airborne forces despite the decline in major parachute assaults. It also explains the importance of airborne forces for South Africa with reference to its defence policy and defence commitments. The article concludes that an SOF capability will enable the SA Army to operate better across the conflict spectrum, including robust multinational peace operations in Africa, which mostly involve insurgencies. The article also argues that South Africa needs a balanced airborne capability before it can establish an SOF capability. The intended conversion of airborne forces to SOF will require considerable changes in training and doctrine.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 71 –94 (2012)More Less
The subjects of law enforcement, the protection of society and more specifically criminal justice practices have sparked lively debate in both public and legal spheres. Over the past decade, human right scholars/activists as well as civil society organisations in South Africa have advocated for the creation of new laws, policies and practices in relation to the fight against crime. Reflecting on over a decade of law enforcement, this article attempts to highlight some of South Africa's unique experiences in the fight against crime as well as the specific discursive challenges faced by reformers in developing an appropriate contextual approach. This article reflects specifically on the often-overlooked role, which the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) can play in precipitating and sustaining law enforcement in civil society. It also further reflects on the legislative decisions made in this regard. The article also examines the general overview of shifts in policing policies and practices with regard to policing and law enforcement in the South African context.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 95 –116 (2012)More Less
The result of this article is an alternative model for leadership character development in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF). The SANDF reflects the racial and cultural diversity of South Africa as a nation. The need for a unifying leadership related mechanism, which will provide for the military milieu in which humane leadership development will flourish, is evident. This statement is based on the premise that no evidence was found that any previous efforts by the SANDF to instil a leadership philosophy or policy as a way of military life was successful. The model also addresses further shortcomings in the current SANDF leadership development model as the selection process of officer candidates needs improvement because political guidance and participation in the development of military leaders are absent. Officer formative training consequently reflects emaciated attention to the development of the character side of leaders, and the SANDF has no military leadership institution to ensure that its leadership development policies and practices are based on sound academic research.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 117 –138 (2012)More Less
Suicidal behaviour is a challenge for military forces around the world. Suicide can be a reaction in peacekeeping operations or conventional warfare, because the stressful nature of both types of operations can force military members to such a catastrophic end. This article focuses on the necessary knowledge and skills for a better understanding of suicidal behaviour in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) for members on different levels. It discusses the operational environment, with specific reference to peacekeeping operations or conventional warfare as contributing factors, risk factors, and the prevention and proper management of suicide by means of educating commanders and members of the multi-professional team (MPT).
Author Leopold ScholtzSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 139 –143 (2012)More Less
Judging by the number of books published - either on paper or on the internet - the (probably mostly white) public's interest in the so-called Border War is ostensibly at an all-time high. By far most of the publications are written by ex-soldiers who themselves participated in the war, but academics are also increasingly turning their attention in that direction.
Author Jacques BezuidenhoutSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 144 –145 (2012)More Less
Modern Military Geography is a new text that explores the relationship between geography and military conflict. As such, it covers many different scenarios and operational theatres and brings perspective to the link between local topography, hydrographical settings, climate, coastal conditions and military operations. The text goes further by examining the influence of secondary factors, which include, biological, health and environmental issues on military operations. The unique interaction between physical conditions and the geopolitical realities of different geographical settings are well illustrated. This book is therefore an excellent addition to the fields of military geography and military history, as well as other related military disciplines.
Author Gerhard Van ZylSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 146 –148 (2012)More Less
Ehrlich cuts right through and beyond linguistic jargon to reach to the bone and marrow of both scientific and ordinary users of language by revealing how language is used by those in power to keep them in power. Is there a need for such acute surgery in a South African context, and in particular in an SANDF context?