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- Volume 40, Issue 2, 2012
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 40, Issue 2, 2012
Volume 40, Issue 2, 2012
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp i –iv (2012)More Less
Military science, like conflict, war and warfare from which the discipline derived its existence, is a broad and complex field of study. The focus of Scientia Militaria,, the South African Journal of Military Studies, has always been driven by two key considerations. Firstly, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of all things military and, secondly, an understanding that, irrespective of how widely the study of military affairs, the idea of warfighting and the need to be effective in the use of military forces in the provision of security, remains at the heart of military sciences. This edition of the journal is a typical reflection of this focus.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 1 –21 (2012)More Less
Nigeria has recently been confronted with increased terrorist activity by a group called Boko Haram. This group has been able to survive counterterrorist measures by the Nigerian government and has increased its attacks on targets inside and outside its traditional area of operation. On Christmas 2011, at least 25 churchgoers were killed. Earlier, Boko Haram hit the headquarters of the United Nations in Abuja, Nigeriaâ??s federal capital, in a suicide attack, leaving at least 23 people killed and more than 80 injured. This article will look into Boko Haram, its ideology, its methods, and its international connections. In order to determine whether or not the group is driven by religious motives, the authors consider Boko Haram's use of religion as an ideology, as an instrument for recruitment, as a legitimation of extreme violence and as a criterion for the selection of targets. These indicators will be examined in order to learn more about the character of Boko Haram, about its ideology, its methods, and its international connections. The authors conclude that Boko Haram is indeed primarily driven by religious motives while its members are motivated by a Jihadist version of Islam. They view themselves as believers of the only true interpretation of the Islamic faith. Their aim is to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria on the basis of the Sharia.
Author V. SeegersSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 22 –45 (2012)More Less
In the wake of 9/11, Africa was securitised in a new way by the United States (US): weak states were believed to pose an existential threat to the US. American aid to Africa consequently more than tripled in the years following 9/11. Using the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory, we investigate the interaction between the executive branch as claimant and the US Congress as legitimiser. The factors of political agency and context are accentuated in our use of securitisation theory. Yet, the evidence also points to structural forces, especially the unequal relationship between executive and legislature.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 46 –71 (2012)More Less
The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi) met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.
Author G.N. Van den BerghSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 72 –88 (2012)More Less
The continued military resistance of the Republics after the occupation of Bloemfontein and Pretoria and exaggerated by the advent of guerrilla tactics frustrated the British High Command. In the case of the Potchefstroom region, British aggravation came to focus on the successful resurgence of the Potchefstroom Commando, under Gen. Petrus Liebenberg, swelled by surrendered burghers from the Gatsrand again taking up arms. A succession of proclamations of increasing severity were directed at civilians for lending support to commandos had no effect on either the growth or success of Liebenberg's commando. His basis for operations was the Gatsrand from where he disrupted British supply communications. He was involved in British evacuations of the town in July and August 1900 and in assisting De Wet in escaping British pursuit in August 1900. British policy came to revolve around denying Liebenberg use of the abundant food supplies in the Gatsrand by applying a scorched earth policy there and in the adjacent Mooi River basin. This occurred in conjuncture with the brief second and permanent third occupation of Potchefstroom. The subsequent establishment of garrisons there gave rise to the systematic destruction of the Gatsrand agricultural infrastructure. To deny further use of the region by commandos it was depopulated. In consequence, the first and largest concentration camp in the Transvaal was established in Potchefstroom. The policies succeeded in dispelling Liebenberg from the region.
Author Jacques BezuidenhoutSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 89 –101 (2012)More Less
Saldanha Bay on the west coast of South Africa is surrounded by various nature reserves, military units and training sites. Over a long period of time, large parts of this semi-arid area were exposed to human activities, including military training and the preparation of forces for war. This article investigates the prospect of identifying areas where human activities took place via mapping of the variation in primordial radioactive isotopes. For this purpose, in situ gamma-ray data were obtained from selected locations around Saldanha Bay. The data were used to extract concentrations of primordial radioactive isotopes in these locations. The radioactive primordial isotope concentrations were then mapped and compared to historical evidence of human activities in these areas. The concentrations of potassium isotope showed a relationship to the height above mean sea level. Historical human activities were mainly confined to flatter regions of the area around Saldanha Bay and therefore also relate to the height above mean sea level. The potassium concentrations and the areas where human activities took place were compared and a significant relationship was found.
Author Gary BainesSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 102 –141 (2012)More Less
This article narrates the story of nine soldiers captured during and shortly after Operation Savannah, the codename for the South African Defence Force invasion of Angola in 1975â??6. Eight of these soldiers were captured in Angola in three separate incidents by Angolan and/or Cuban forces, whereas the last was abducted from northern Namibia by SWAPO (the South West Africa Peoples' Organisation). The article then provides a chronological account of the sequels to this story that interweaves a number of threads: first, the account relates the South African government's attempts to suppress press coverage of these stories for fear of the political 'fall-out' that the matter might cause amongst the white electorate and in case it jeopardised secret negotiations to secure the release of the prisoners; and second, it uncovers the role played by intermediaries, especially the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), in the sensitive and fraught negotiation process. It will be shown that the South African authorities adopted divergent approaches when dealing with SWAPO and the Angolans/Cubans to secure the release of prisoners of war (POWs). This is because the South African authorities regarded the former as involved in an internal insurrection whereas the latter were members of the military forces of sovereign states. Accordingly, they paid lip service to the Geneva Conventions in the case of Angolan and Cuban POWs but treated captured SWAPO cadres as 'terrorists' or 'criminals'.
Author Hussein SolomonSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 142 –165 (2012)More Less
South Africa confronts a tangible terror threat in the form of some terrorists targeting the country itself, whilst others find it useful as an operational base to strike at targets elsewhere. Far from attempting to provide a comprehensive study of this phenomenon, this article aims to point out the pitfalls of researching terrorism in the South African context. This largely stems from mixed signals emanating from the South African government as well as the reluctance on the part of Pretoriaâ??s securocrats to answer questions pertaining to terrorism. Two reasons are advanced to explain this: incompetence and political correctness. Such mixed signals, it is argued, also confuse the security apparatus of the state itself. This, in turn, serves to frustrate counter-terror efforts.
Author C.J. JacobsSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 166 –168 (2012)More Less
In the period 1802 to 1893, the Eastern Cape witnessed the clash of two cultures with the expansion of European colonialism, first under the Dutch and later the British Empire with the indigenous people. The result was nine frontier wars that disposed the Xhosa people of large tracts of land and left them with a fraction of their former possessions in reserves and as British subjects.
Author Gerhard Van ZylSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 169 –170 (2012)More Less
"I was conceived in rape." At least for this reviewer, this is one of the most powerful, hard-hitting opening lines of any book he has read to date. Moreover, from there this powerful text continues to hold the reader captive, and refuses to allow him or her to fall back in a slumber of indifference.
The Anglo-Boer war 1899-1902 : White man's war, Black man's war, traumatic war, André Wessels : book reviewAuthor Deon VisserSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 171 –173 (2012)More Less
The Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902: White man's war, black man's war, traumatic war is the latest work from the pen of established Anglo-Boer War historian André Wessels, following hot on the heels of his previous book A century of postgraduate Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902) studies (Bloemfontein, Sun Press, 2010).
Author Erica LeinmillerSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 40, pp 174 –179 (2012)More Less
Fisher brings a valuable applied perspective to the philosophy concerned with the morality of warfare, because, as an experienced senior civil servant and government adviser, he has first-hand experience of the policy impact of the philosophical ideas addressed in this book.