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- Volume 41, Issue 2, 2013
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 41, Issue 2, 2013
Volume 41, Issue 2, 2013
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp i –iv (2013)More Less
The military profession, like the scholarly one, faces the dualistic conundrum of learning from the past in an effort to shape future reality. The question is not only how to balance the study of history with concerns of, in many cases, the unpredictable, foreseeable future. It is also a matter of how to study both history (in an effort to draw the right lessons from past experience) and contemporary trends (to temper our expectations of the future). Historically, informed guesswork governed by what Colin Gray refers to as the 'golden rule of prudence' is the best way to 'gamble' with the future and ensure that plans are not only governed by hope. As editors of a journal on military studies our challenge is always to find a careful balance in the content between looking at what has happened and what is due to influence future strategic and tactical realities.
Author Francois VreySource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 1 –23 (2013)More Less
Maritime security appears to be assuming an increasingly more prominent place on the African security agenda. Although the growing scholarly debate and international responses seem to attend to more than piracy, the latter unfortunately skews perceptions about Africa's maritime landscape. The piracy focus suggests a limited problem-solving approach, but Africa's offshore domain calls for a more critical stance that entails more than anti-piracy. Perceptions and realities of maritime terrorism, piracy, illegal oil bunkering, criminality and unsettled maritime boundaries increasingly complicate traditional African threats and vulnerabilities on land. The growing range of threats requires a framework to explain events taking shape off West and East Africa in particular better. In this regard, the constituent elements of good order at sea house a more critical line to view security off Africa through safe access to resources (food and minerals), safe sea routes, as well as dominium and jurisdiction. Opposition to threats off the African coast tends to privilege naval responses, but closer scrutiny reflects that responses are found to also display a profile of cooperation between numerous actors and agencies that securitise maritime threats beyond piracy. The resultant cooperation reveals landward and offshore initiatives that promote maritime security, rather than merely fighting piracy.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 24 –41 (2013)More Less
For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the 'Dark Continent'. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the authors reflect upon information-based conflict in Africa. Areas of information conflict that are discussed include censorship, communications intercepts, the use of information and communications to instigate violence and uprisings, and the possibility of cyberwarfare. The article shows that the use of technology to conduct information conflict in Africa is prevalent, and that it is likely to increase.
Author Glen SegellSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 42 –59 (2013)More Less
The 'Arab Spring' refers to the wave of civil unrest that covered countries with predominant Moslem populations in North Africa, the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula, which started late 2010 in Tunisia. The unrests quickly spread across the region, giving rise to the notion of a single inter-related event. However, the results and outcome in each country have been different. This is because each and every country had its own unique political system and unique institutions of state with different relations between power elites. Two institutions of state had prime importance in this political system. These were the executive and the military. In each there was only one important person, the state leader be he president, king, prime minister, emir or sheik or the chief of the armed forces. This article describes that a major cause for the different results and outcomes in each country was determined by the prevailing relations between them, i.e. the civil-military relations.
"The direction of the whole of the forces available" : the disputed spheres of military and civil authority in the Eastern Cape (1877-1878), Natal (1879) and Zululand (1888)Author John LabandSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 60 –76 (2013)More Less
In the late Victorian British Empire, the spheres of authority of the civil and military powers were not unequivocally defined, and could lead to wrangles that threatened the efficient conduct of military operations. Three such disputes occurred in southern Africa between 1878 and 1888. In 1878, during the 9th Cape Frontier War, the high commissioner replaced the Cape ministry with a more compliant one to assert control over both the imperial and colonial forces engaged. During the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879, the lieutenant-governor of Natal disputed the right of the general officer commanding to deploy African levies raised and stationed in Natal along the Zululand border. In 1888, during the uSuthu Rebellion in Zululand, the governor interfered with the general's military arrangements because he believed these arrangements affected his civil powers. To head off future disputes of this nature, the British government ruled in 1879 that the commander in the field always had to exercise full control over active operations, and in 1888 finally clarified in which circumstances the general in command assumed operational authority over both the colonial and imperial troops stationed in a colony.
The skirmish at Gatberg : a perspective on the utilisation of Black auxiliaries during the South African War on the Transkei border (1899-1902)Author Pieter LabuschagneSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 78 –91 (2013)More Less
The South African War (1899-1902) created major rifts in the post-war society as a result of various controversies that emanated from the conflict, which left a long legacy of bitterness and in many ways inhibited nation-building in the country. One contentious issue that had a major influence on society during and after the War was that of the role and participation of black auxiliaries who were deployed against the Boer forces. After the hostilities had ended, many publications dealt with the topic at both a general and an individual level. The aim of the study on which this article reports, was to analyse the topic at an individual level, specifically focusing on an incident that occurred at Gatberg on 20 November 1901. The skirmish near the former Transkei border occurred between a Boer commando and a black unit under the command of a British officer, and resulted in a great deal of bitterness and controversy that lasted for many years after the conclusion of the War. In the article, the clash is described and placed in its historical context in order to explain what transpired on that fateful day. The article explains the animosity that was generated by the incident, but also the contrasting views that existed after the incident.
The 'British-Imperial' model of administration : assembling the South African Constabulary, 1900 - 1902Author Scott C. SpencerSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 92 –115 (2013)More Less
With the end of the South African War believed to be in sight, British policy makers in South Africa created the South African Constabulary (SAC) in late 1900 to provide law and order over the new Transvaal and Orange River colonies. By 1900, policy makers no longer simply exported 'English' or 'Irish' models to the colonies but sought guidance from existing institutions throughout the British Isles and Empire in a single 'British-Imperial' model of administration. Those policy makers and the new corps' senior officers turned to the imperial policing network for ideas, methods, and particularly personnel to assemble the SAC, recruiting ten thousand officers and constables from across the British Isles and Empire. When it disbanded eight years later, SAC veterans used the imperial policing network to take up new positions in police forces throughout the British Isles and Empire. This 'British-Imperial' model implemented a 'best practices' form of administration in which the men (and, very occasionally, women) who carried these practices enjoyed superior importance.
SAS Drakensberg's first 25 years : the life and times of the SA Navy's foremost grey diplomat, 1987-2012Author Andre WesselsSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 116 –141 (2013)More Less
The South African Navy (SAN)'s first (and thus far only) purpose-built combat support ship, SAS Drakensberg, was commissioned on 11 November 1987. In this study, the ship's first 25 years of service (1987-2012) to the SAN (and the people of South Africa) was analysed, with special reference to her role as a grey diplomat (i.e. the flag-showing cruises she undertook and her concomitant role in strengthening diplomatic and other ties with many countries). The Drakensberg's other peace-time roles were also be reviewed, including -
- humanitarian and related relief expeditions;
- her role during exercises with other SAN warships as well as ships and submarines from other navies, both in South African waters and across the globe;
- her role as a training ship;
- ceremonial duties; and
- lately also in anti-piracy patrols.
Author C.J. JacobsSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 142 –149 (2013)More Less
Deployment psychology: Evidenced-based strategies to promote mental health in the military, A.B. Adler, P.D. Bliese and C.A. Castro (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Jarred MartinSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 150 –155 (2013)More Less
On 23 March 2013, South African (SA) soldiers made contact with the Seleka rebel group as part of the South African operational involvement in the Central African Republic (CAR). The ensuing battle between the militia and the SA troops left the latter with 27 wounded and, to date, 14 dead. The media coverage, which followed our troop losses in the CAR, was a reminder for many of the integral involvement of SA forces, in the form of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF), across the African continent. With the passing of the United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 2098, in March 2013, SANDF troops are now being deployed as part of a roughly 3 000-strong UN Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) in the DRC. In many ways the increased involvement of SA troops in the CAR and the unfortunate loss of SA soldiers in the CAR serve as a stark reminder of the important role played by mental health practitioners in providing our troops with the appropriate psychological support during deployments. It is in this vein that Deployment psychology: Evidenced-based strategies to promote mental health in the military serves as a useful and timely repository for psychologists, registered counsellors, and other mental health practitioners working in the SANDF.
Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in South Africa, Ruth Hall (Ed.) : book reviewAuthor Cadene NabbieSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 41, pp 156 –159 (2013)More Less
This study titled Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in South Africa, edited by Ruth Hall, is significant given the challenges around diminishing global resources, including those affecting food security. Land reform does not only affect food security but also the maintenance of food production levels, development of small businesses, residential settlement and social cohesion. The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time when land issues have taken centre stage in public and private debates in South Africa. There are wide-ranging security implications for South Africa if the process of land reform is mismanaged. This study is a timeous one. Hall, as editor, contributes to some of the eleven chapters. The author is well versed in land issues in South Africa and her work focuses on the interests, actors and discourses which have shaped land reform processes in South Africa. As a background to this book, it would help to the read the 2010 study undertaken by Hall under the title The politics of land reform in post-apartheid South Africa, 1990-2004: A shifting terrain of power, actors and discourses.