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- Volume 42, Issue 1, 2014
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 42, Issue 1, 2014
Volume 42, Issue 1, 2014
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp i –iv (2014)More Less
The use of armed force, Clausewitz argues, has its own grammar but not its logic. In general, most military practitioners have a sound understanding of the nature of the political process that underpins the logic of war. At the same time, though, they tend to view politics with scepticism because politicians "... by virtue of their craft, perceive or fear wide ramifications of action, prefer to fudge rather than focus, and like to keep their options open as long as possible by making the least decision as late as feasible". Instead of muddling through, the military realm, in contrast, is perceived as an orderly world set to "... simplify, focus, decide, and execute". The reality of the military grammar that Clausewitz refers to, of course, is somewhat different. More specifically, it would be more correct to speak of the grammars of war since warfare, as the manifestation of war, displays itself in a number of ways.
Author Luke DiverSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 1 –17 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1078More Less
It has been estimated that around fifty thousand Irishmen fought during the South African War, many of whom were at the forefront of a number of key engagements, serving in Ireland's thirteen infantry battalions and three cavalry regiments. Ireland's Imperial connections were further reinforced by the country's impressive civilian contribution to the war effort. At least thirty-three militia battalions were mobilised during the course of the war, with seven units being despatched to the front, thirteen companies attested for the Imperial Yeomanry, many civilian Irish nurses and doctors enrolled into the army medical services, and tens of thousands of pounds were raised through various Irish war charities. Notwithstanding the immense Irish military contribution and contemporary civilian interest in the war, very little modern research or public knowledge exists on the subject. The dearth in research is perhaps due to Irish Nationalist historiography and sensitivity during the twentieth century, which has arguably distorted our perspective of Ireland's shared history with the British Empire. Therefore, it is the purpose of this article to present an alternative Ireland, which has largely been ignored, by discussing Ireland's military contribution and experience during the course of the war. In addition, the article attempts to recall the Irish public's active demonstration of Imperial support and highlights the relationship that existed between Ireland and the British Empire during the conflict.
Author P.S. ThompsonSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 18 –43 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1079More Less
In the Zulu Rebellion of 1906, the Natal Militia defeated the Zulu rebels without British imperial forces having to intervene in the conflict. The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. Colonial military intelligence was modelled on imperial military intelligence in the South African War (1899-1902). The Natal Militia, reorganised in 1903, lacked an intelligence department at the outbreak of the rebellion, and had to improvise a system quickly. The improvisation in the field proved very effective, providing valuable information on the enemy's strength, dispositions and intentions, and so contributed to the timely victory of the colonial forces at the battle of Mome (10 June 1906). This article gives the imperial background and describes the organisation (staff, officers and operatives, scouts and spies) and operations (collection, interpretation and dissemination of information) of colonial military intelligence in the field during the crucial second phase of the rebellion.
Author Maja GarbSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 44 –63 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1080More Less
Questioning and investigating the success of peace operations is not a new research activity. However, there are still many open questions, because the surveys do not show the same results. One of the crucial points in the analysis of the success of peace operations is a definition of such success. In this article, firstly, several debates on success evaluation, previously published definitions and criteria of success are explored, and some survey results are presented. Secondly, the evaluations of success of almost all peace operations made by students of International Relations and Defence Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences in the study year 2008/2009 are presented and analysed. The success criteria used by the students in their evaluations comprise the main research question of the article. The analysis showed that three criteria were mostly used, namely fulfilment of the mandate or goals, the political and security situation, and assistance to the local population.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 64 –79 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1081More Less
The end of the Cold War witnessed the growth and spread of legally established private military contractors (PMCs) playing largely undefined roles in wars, international security and post-conflict reconstruction. The operations of PMCs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the 21st century have been marked by gross human rights abuses and poor treatment and torture of prisoners of war (POWs). Indeed, PMCs are likely to step outside their contractual obligations and commit criminal acts. This article adds to the literature on the subject by arguing that the elusiveness of PMCs' individual or corporate responsibility for war crimes presents one of the greatest challenges for international humanitarian law (IHL). This presents a dilemma for IHL, which seeks to address individual offences. The situation becomes even more complicated when non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) are involved in the use of PMCs.
Author Jo-Ansie Van WykSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 80 –101 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1082More Less
This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South Africa has succeeded in norm construction, identity formation, and securing a niche role for itself, which resulted in material and non-material advantages for post-apartheid and post-nuclear weapons South Africa.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 102 –121 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1083More Less
The research reported here examined the engineer occupational course curricula presented by the South African Army School of Engineers. Methodology involved examination of all enabling learning objectives for the Corps Training Course (701 ENGR 006), the Troop Officers Course (701 ENGR 103), the Troop Commanders Course (701 ENGR 16) and the Squadron Commanders Course (701 ENGR 17). The research determined the number of learning objectives dedicated to terrain analysis and whether those learning objectives were linked to an assessment to determine competency levels for terrain analysis. The study used content analysis to determine the presence of terrain analysis content in the course curricula and to make recommendations. Data have been collected from analysis of the first four occupational course curricula presented to officers of the Engineer Corps as mentioned above, books, army field manuals and occasional papers. Recommendations are that the learning objectives dedicated to terrain analysis should be expanded and better focused and that assessment instruments capable of measuring competency in terrain analysis should be created and/or improved. An additional recommendation is that exercises are needed during the occupational courses that require officers to assimilate the effect of terrain on operations in order to improve officers' terrain analysis competencies. This will serve as an important assessment instrument that will improve development of officers' skills and earn them experience, not just grades.
Taking the lonely walk in Iraq and Afghanistan
Eight lives down - The story of a counter-terrorist bomb-disposal operator's tour in Iraq, C. Hunter
Extreme risk - A life fighting the bombmakers, C. Hunter
Bomb hunters - In Afghanistan with Britain's Elite Bomb Disposal Unit, S. Rayment : review articleAuthor T. BeukesSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 122 –132 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1084More Less
Eight lives down, Extreme risk and Bomb hunters all contain the personal accounts of British soldiers who served as bomb-disposal operators during the recent armed conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The books were not written as scholarly works intended for an academic audience. Serious students of contemporary armed conflict nevertheless would find them useful reading material. The books should be particularly useful to scholars with a professional interest in asymmetric warfare or the emerging role of improvised explosive devices in contemporary armed conflict.
Foreign Intervention in Africa: From the Cold War to the War on Terror, Elizabeth Schmidt : book reviewAuthor Vladimir ShubinSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 133 –135 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1085More Less
This book by Elizabeth Schmidt, Professor of History at Loyola University Maryland, was published in the series New Approaches to Africa History, designed to introduce students to current findings and new ideas on the history of the continent. This approach affected the mode of presentation, but did not prevent the book from being a profound and pioneering academic work.
Last Night I Dreamed of Peace: An Extraordinary Diary of Courage from the Vietnam War, Dang Thuy Tram (Transl. by Andrew X. Pham) : book reviewAuthor Lesedi Dawn RakumakoeSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 136 –138 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1086More Less
Many people's view about war and its impact was changed by a woman named Dang Thuy Tram. Her diaries, which she kept as a practicing medical doctor during the Vietnam War, were published some forty odd years after her death. The diaries contain personal accounts of how she viewed and experienced the Vietnam War. The publication of the diaries made headlines in the non-English reading world.
Author Thato SebalaneSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 42, pp 139 –144 (2014) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1087More Less
The Angolan Bush War or the South African Border War has become something of a forgotten war. In South Africa, the war was heard of, but the details were not known to the general public. For all practical purposes it was a 'secret war'. "Relatives and friends had no idea what their loved ones were going through while serving [on] the border" (p. 13). Today, many South Africans have a limited or distorted understanding of why there was a border war or, for that matter, few can explain why South Africa was entangled in a quagmire of that sort for years on end in Angola. The consistent stream of border war literature has tried to fill this void. The main contributors from South Africa were at first commanding officers (veteran colonels and retired generals) but thereafter numerous former conscripts. The declassification of information paved the way for aspiring researchers interested in uncovering this 'secret war'. More recently, the opposing sides have started to chronicle 'their side of the story' and record details of 'their' experiences. A recent contribution is that of Gennady Shubin and Andrei Tokarev.