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- Volume 43, Issue 1, 2015
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies - Volume 43, Issue 1, 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1, 2015
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp i –iv (2015)More Less
The role of the military in the making of South Africa has always been a contentious issue and has recently again been highlighted when the military was deployed in certain South African neighbourhoods in support of the police to deal with the recent bout of xenophobic violence. During the 2010 Soccer World Cup, the military was deployed to help with border protection and has since been a permanent feature on South Africa's borders. More recently, the military has also been utilised in counter-poaching operations and the fight against crime inside the country. During the farm labour unrest in the Western Cape in 2012, the provincial government under the national opposition party, the Democratic Alliance, also called on the national government to deploy the military in support of the police in that province. In the more recent past, the Western Cape provincial government also requested military support to deal with gangsterism in certain neighbourhoods of the Western Cape. There seems to be an increasing demand for and an increased deployment of the military in the domestic security realm in South Africa. Domestic military deployments in Africa have always been at the heart of debates about military professionalism and the effect such deployments have on the important relationship between a society and its military. The study of the intimate link between the military and the South African society is the focus of the first article by Lindy Heinecken.
Author Lindy HeineckenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 1 –16 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-1-1107More Less
Sociology offers a distinctive way of seeing and explaining the social world within which we live, as well as the events and institutions that shape it. Given this, it is surprising that the study of war by sociologists has been largely at the margins of the discipline. This has not always been the case, if one reflects on the work of the founding fathers of sociology - Marx, Weber and Durkheim. While the 'sociology of war' still does not feature strongly within the discipline, this article shows that sociology provides a critical lens through which to analyse military and warfare, as well as to show how violent conflict affects society. To illustrate this, reference is made to various leading social theorists and sociologists who inform our current understanding of collective violence and war in this era of globalisation. To end the discussion reference is made to the place of military sociology as a sub-field focusing on the military institution and some of the key texts and issues addressed by sociologists.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 17 –44 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-1-1108More Less
This article is part of a larger study exploring global patterns of security education, in order to enhance the collaborative pursuit of security by the majority of the worldâ??s countries. We draw on interviews at multinational training events, site visits and open sources. Here we describe general patterns of police, gendarme and military education in Africa, with particular attention to university-like institutions. This leads us to focus on mid-career military staff colleges as the most likely venues for building communities of educated professionals to enhance security. We identify states in each region with the greatest potential to play a leading role in the development of knowledge addressing new security challenges. South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya have obvious educational potential. Good governance and national policies are more important than size and wealth, and this suggests that smaller states like Senegal and Botswana could make important contributions. Mechanisms contributing to regional security communities include the African Peace and Security Architecture, career incentives, innovation, and regional training centres. Understanding the patterns of security education lays the groundwork to understand innovation, diffusion and the influence of the content of security of education.
Author Hussein SolomonSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 45 –76 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-1-1109More Less
Africa, with its combination of fragile governments and institutions, abject poverty amid great resources, wealth and a legacy of incessant violent conflict, has increasingly become integrated into the global security architecture. With growing globalisation, insecurity anywhere is a threat to security everywhere. Given this context, Africa's own insecurity is serving as a source of concern for the United States and other global powers. Africa is plagued by a broad spectrum of traditional and non-traditional security threats on the one hand, and yet, as will be seen in this article, home to an emerging regional and international security consciousness and activism on the other. It was the purpose of the study on which this article reports, to examine African approaches to ensure peace, security and stability on the continent at national, sub-regional and regional level. The African Union's (AU) approach to the promotion of peace and security on the continent can be described as a constructivist-inspired cooperative security approach, and it will be demonstrated that sub-regional organisations are very important security enforcing actors in the African security architecture.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 77 –98 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-1-1110More Less
This article discusses a new form of war, 'hybrid war', with inclusion of aspects of 'cyber-terrorism' and 'cyber-war' against the backdrop of Russia's 'Ukrainian Spring' and the continuing threat posed by radical Islamist groups in Africa and the Middle East. It also discusses the findings of an on-going hybrid threat project by the Swedish Defence College. This interdisciplinary article predicts that military doctrines, traditional approaches to war and peace and their perceptions will have to change in the future.
The relationship between British war correspondents in the field and British military intelligence during the Anglo-Boer WarAuthor Donal P. McCrachenSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 99 –126 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/43-1-1111More Less
This article chronicles the developing relationship between the press corps on the British side and British Military Intelligence during the Anglo-Boer War, particularly during the formal and non-guerrilla phase of the conflict. The article comments on the nature and composition of both the press corps and of the military intelligence operation. In particular, the article looks at the problem and issues relating to the relationship: licensing correspondents, censorship, monitoring journalists' activities, as well as the successful attempt of the intelligence sector to bring the press into their campaign to spread pro-British propaganda. The role of the press in the saga of the attempt to make British Military Intelligence a scapegoat for British initial failures is also mentioned.
Source: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 127 –148 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1112More Less
From historical writings to current day, morale has always been regarded as a major determinant of success on the battlefield. The management of morale is thus also important in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) for ensuring combat readiness. Numerous studies have been done in the past in various countries to investigate the factors influencing morale. A summary of the factors identified in the literature was used in the study on which this article is based, to compile a psychological plan to manage morale on the battlefield. Some recommendations for possible actions toward improving morale are included.
Author Roy LickliderSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 149 –155 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1113More Less
The study of civil war since the end of the Cold War has uncovered several interesting, counter-intuitive facts. The first is that civil wars do end. Depending on how one counts, there have been 100-200 such wars since 1945. There are now fewer than ten, and some of them are new rather than old. Of course, some of these may break out again (a gentleman on a flight to Atlanta once explained to the author that the American Civil War was not yet over), but it is not likely that most will, let alone all. Indeed, every major power has had one or more civil wars which have ended: the French, Russians and Chinese after their revolutions; Germany, after the wars of unification (or the Thirty Years War, if you want to go back that far); the British, after the War of the Roses and its Civil War. The United States has done it twice: after the American Revolution and after the American Civil War. But it is fair to say that we do not really understand how large numbers of people who have been killing one another with considerable skill and enthusiasm are somehow able to create working political communities.
Author Ian LiebenbergSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 156 –159 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1114More Less
Possessing a good book, given the increasing costs of books, is becoming more and more challenging. And I am not only talking about the absurd high import taxes levied in South Africa. Hitting a button on Google will get you the relevant title more or less immediately and very virtual ("the age of the brutality of global plastic"). For some exorbitant fee, you may offload the work. Using one of the digitally available points of global offset, you may order the relevant work at four or five times (or somewhat more than that) its original price via the internet. In countries that for reasons of exploitation or domination of others adhere to the copyright mentality, you may find the work in the original edition at about 10 to 15 times its original price. Being aware and with eyes wide open underpinned with a lot of human energy and the advice of valued friends, you will find a copy of the same work, frequently in a splendid condition, in a second-hand bookshop, the latter usually outside the parameters of city centres.
One Hundred Years of the ANC: Debating Liberation Histories Today, Arianna Lissoni, Jon Soske, Natasha Erlank, Noor Nieftagodien and Omar Badsha (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Deon VisserSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 160 –163 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1115More Less
One hundred years of the ANC comprises a selection of papers by South African and international scholars read at a conference titled "One Hundred Years of the ANC: Debating Liberation Histories and Democracy Today" held at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg from 20 to 23 September 2011. The book commences with the two keynote addresses that framed the academic debate at the above-mentioned conference. The first, by Philip Bonner, addresses the topic "Fragmentation and cohesion in the ANC: The first 70 years". The second one, contributed by Joel Netshitenzhe, is entitled "A continuing search for identity: Carrying the burden of history". These keynote addresses are followed by an introductory chapter by the first three editors of the book and fourteen chronologically arranged chapters on various aspects of the ANC's hundred-year history.
Peacebuilding and Reconciliation: Contemporary Themes and Challenges, Marwan Darweish and Carol Rank (Eds.) : book reviewAuthor Gerhard Van ZylSource: Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies 43, pp 164 –167 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.5787/42-1-1116More Less
It is said that the reader of any book brings his or her own reality to that book, which then generates a new, richer reality. This book review of Peacebuilding and reconciliation: Contemporary themes and challenges has been written from the Centre for Trust, Peace and Reconciliation (CTPSR), Coventry University, by a South African. Ruins and reconstructions in Coventry city speak of the destruction of war and conflict over centuries. They also speak of the potential for peacebuilding and reconciliation against severe odds, of a city rising from the ashes - and not just rebuilding, but reinventing itself for the greater good, thus going beyond reconciliation. This town's history as recorded formally and living in the minds of people, statues, living monuments and current practices, most notably its rich global ethnic diversity and related ways of life, reveal the human drive to forgive, reconcile and prosper in peace in spite of, and in the case of the CTPSR, one of its living monuments, because of its diversity.